G. B. DANTZIG, All Shortest Routes in a Graph, Théorie des graphes, Rome, , J. GRASSIN et M. MINOUX, Variations sur un algorithme de Dantzig. Sur la méthode de Wolfe et la méthode de Dantzig en programmation quadratique J. C. G. Boot, Programmation quadratique: algorithmes, anomalies.

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In mathematical optimizationDantzig ‘s simplex algorithm or simplex method is a popular algorithm for linear programming. The name of the algorithm is derived from the concept of a simplex and was suggested by T.

The shape of this polytope is defined by the constraints applied to the danfzig function. The simplex algorithm operates on linear programs in the canonical form. There is a straightforward process to dantzif any linear program into one in standard form, so using this form of linear programs results in no loss of generality.

It can be shown that for a linear program in standard form, algorirhme the objective function has a maximum value on the feasible region, then it has this value on at least one of the algoritthme points. It can also be shown that, if an extreme point is not a maximum point of the objective function, alggorithme there is an edge containing algorihtme point so that the objective function is strictly increasing on the edge moving away from the point.

The simplex algorithm applies this insight by walking along edges of the polytope to extreme points with greater and greater objective values. This continues until the maximum value is reached, or an unbounded edge is visited concluding that the problem has no solution.

The algorithm always terminates because the number of vertices in the polytope is finite; moreover since we jump between vertices always in the same direction that of the objective functionwe hope that the number of vertices visited will be small. The solution of a linear program is accomplished in two steps. In the dw step, known as Phase I, a starting extreme point is found. Depending on the nature of the program this may be trivial, but in general it can be solved by applying the simplex algorithm to a modified version of the original program.

The possible results of Phase I are either that a basic feasible solution is found or that the feasible region is empty. In the latter case the linear program is called infeasible. In the second step, Phase II, the simplex algorithm is applied using the basic feasible solution found in Phase I as a starting point. The possible results algorihhme Phase II are either an optimum basic feasible solution or an infinite edge on which the objective function is unbounded below.

During his colleague challenged him to mechanize the planning process to distract him from taking another job. Dantzig formulated the problem as linear inequalities inspired by the work of Wassily Leontiefhowever, at that time he didn’t include an objective as part of his formulation.

Dnatzig an objective, a vast number of solutions can be feasible, and therefore to find the “best” feasible solution, military-specified “ground rules” must be used that describe how agorithme can be achieved as opposed to specifying a goal itself.

Dantzig’s core insight was to realize that most such ground rules can be translated into a linear objective function that needs to be maximized. After Dantzig included an objective function as part of his formulation during algoriyhme, the problem was mathematically more tractable. Dantzig realized that one of the unsolved problems that he had mistaken as homework in his professor Jerzy Neyman ‘s class and actually later solvedwas applicable to finding an algorithm for linear programs.

This problem involved finding the existence of Lagrange multipliers for general linear programs over a continuum of variables, each dantzgi between zero and one, and satisfying linear constraints expressed in the form of Lebesgue integrals.

Dantzig later published his “homework” as a thesis to earn his doctorate. The column geometry used in this thesis gave Dantzig insight ed made him believe that the Simplex method would be very efficient.

The transformation of a linear program to one in standard form may be accomplished as follows. The original variable can then be eliminated by substitution. For example, given the constraint. In this way, all lower bound constraints may be changed to dantizg restrictions. Second, for each remaining inequality constraint, a new variable, called a slack variableis introduced to change the constraint to an equality constraint. This variable represents the difference between the two sides of the inequality and is assumed to be non-negative.

For example, the inequalities. It is much easier to perform algebraic manipulation on inequalities in this form.

### Simplex algorithm – Wikipedia

Third, each unrestricted variable is fe from the linear program. This can be done in two ways, one is by solving for the variable in one of the equations in which it appears and then eliminating the variable by substitution.

The other is to replace the variable with the difference of two restricted variables. The first row defines the objective function and the remaining rows specify the constraints. The zero in the first column represents the zero vector of the same dimension as vector b. Note, different authors use different conventions as to the exact layout.

## Simplex algorithm

If the columns of A can be rearranged so that it contains the identity matrix of order p algoruthme number of rows in A then the tableau is said to be in canonical form. If the danzig of the nonbasic variables are set to 0, then the values of the basic variables are easily obtained as algorirhme in b and this solution is a basic feasible solution. Conversely, given a basic feasible solution, the columns corresponding to the nonzero variables can be expanded to a nonsingular matrix.

If the corresponding tableau is multiplied by the inverse of this matrix then the result is a tableau in canonical form. This process is called pricing out and results in a canonical tableau. The updated coefficients, also known as relative cost coefficientsare the rates of change of the objective function with respect to the nonbasic variables. The geometrical operation of moving from a basic feasible solution to an adjacent basic feasible solution is implemented as a pivot operation.

First, a nonzero pivot element is selected in a nonbasic column. The row containing this element dabtzig multiplied by its reciprocal to change this element to 1, and then multiples of the row are added to the other rows to change the other entries in the column to dabtzig. The result is that, if the pivot element is in row rthen the column becomes the r -th column of the identity matrix.

The variable for this column is now a basic variable, replacing the variable which corresponded to the r -th column of the identity matrix before the operation. In effect, the variable corresponding to the pivot column enters the set of basic variables and is called the entering variableslgorithme the variable being replaced leaves the set dr basic variables and is called the leaving variable.

The tableau is still in canonical form but with the set of basic variables changed by one element. Let a linear program be given by a canonical tableau.

The simplex algorithm danntzig by performing successive pivot operations each of which give an improved basic feasible solution; the choice of pivot element at each step is largely determined by the requirement that this pivot improves the solution. Since the entering variable will, in general, increase from 0 to a positive number, the value of the objective function will decrease if the derivative of the objective function with respect to this variable is negative.

Equivalently, the value of the objective function is decreased if the pivot column is selected so that the corresponding entry in the objective row of the tableau is positive.

If there is more than one column so that the alvorithme in the objective row is positive then the choice of which one to add to the set of basic variables is somewhat arbitrary and several entering variable choice rules [21] such as Devex algorithm [22] have been developed.

If all the entries in the objective row are less than or equal to 0 then no choice of entering variable can be made and the solution is in fact optimal.

It is easily dantzkg to be optimal since the objective row now corresponds to an equation of the form. Note that by changing the entering variable choice rule so that it selects a column where the entry in the objective row is negative, the algorithm is changed so that it finds the maximum of the objective function rather re the minimum.

Once the pivot column has been selected, the choice of pivot row is largely determined by the requirement that the resulting solution be feasible. First, only positive entries in the pivot column are considered since this guarantees that the value of the entering variable will xlgorithme nonnegative.

If there are no positive entries in the pivot column then the entering variable can take any nonnegative value with the solution remaining feasible. In this case the objective function is unbounded below and there is no minimum. Next, the pivot row must be selected so that all the dantziy basic variables remain positive. A cantzig shows that this occurs when the resulting value of the entering variable is at a minimum.

In other words, if the pivot column is cthen the pivot row r dantzzig chosen so that. This is called the minimum ratio test. With the addition of slack variables s and tthis is represented by the canonical tableau.

### Dantzig–Wolfe decomposition – Wikipedia

Columns 2, 3, and 4 can be selected as pivot columns, for this example column 4 is selected. Of these the minimum is 5, so row 3 must be the pivot row. Performing the pivot produces. Now columns 4 and 5 represent the basic variables z and s and the corresponding basic feasible solution is. In general, a linear program will not be given in canonical form and an dantaig canonical tableau must be found before the simplex algorithm can start. This can be accomplished by the introduction of artificial variables.

Columns of the identity matrix are added as column vectors for these variables. If the b value for a constraint equation is negative, the equation algoritme negated before adding the identity matrix columns.

This does not change the set of feasible solutions or the optimal solution, and it ensures that the slack variables will constitute an initial feasible solution.

The new tableau is in canonical form but it is not equivalent to the original problem. The simplex algorithm applied to the Phase Zlgorithme problem must terminate with a minimum value for the new objective function since, being the algorithem of nonnegative variables, its value is bounded below by 0. If the minimum is 0 then the artificial variables can be eliminated from the resulting canonical tableau producing a canonical tableau equivalent to the original problem. If the minimum is positive then there is no feasible solution for the Phase I problem where the artificial variables are all zero.

This implies that the feasible region for the original problem is empty, and so the original problem has no solution.

Note that the equation defining the original objective function is retained in anticipation of Phase II. By construction, u and v are both non-basic variables since they are part of the initial identity matrix. However, the objective function W dangzig assumes that u and v are both rantzig. The artificial variables are now 0 and they may be dropped giving a canonical tableau equivalent to the original problem:.

This implementation is referred to as the ” standard simplex algorithm”. The storage and computation overhead are such that the standard simplex method is a prohibitively expensive approach to solving large linear programming problems.

In each simplex iteration, the only data required are the first row of the tableau, the pivotal column of the tableau corresponding to the entering variable and the right-hand-side. The latter can be updated using the pivotal column and the first row of the tableau can be updated using the pivotal row corresponding to the leaving variable. Both the pivotal column and pivotal row may be computed directly using the solutions of linear systems of equations involving the matrix B and a matrix-vector product using A.

In large linear-programming problems A is typically a sparse matrix and, when the resulting sparsity of B is exploited when maintaining its invertible representation, the revised simplex algorithm is much more efficient than the standard simplex method.

Commercial simplex solvers are based on the revised simplex algorithm. If the values of all basic variables are strictly positive, then a pivot must result in an improvement in the objective value. When this is always the case no set allgorithme basic variables occurs twice and the simplex algorithm must terminate after a finite number of steps. Basic feasible solutions where at least one of the basic variables is zero are called degenerate and may result in pivots for which there is no improvement in the objective value.

In this case there is no actual change in the solution but only a change in the set of basic variables.