European relationship to the land

Indigenous Australians: Australia’s First Peoples exhibition - The Australian Museum

european relationship to the land

Greenland, an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark is one of the EU countries' overseas countries and territories (OCT). Greenland. These extended family relationships are the core of Indigenous .. Although Indigenous cultures are very strong, years of European .. For Indigenous Australians the land is the core of all spirituality and this relationship has. This sovereignty was exercised against European rivals through the allied nations, not at their expense.

This mass depopulation would obviously have an irrevocable effect on the society and culture of the Northwest Coast.

european relationship to the land

The lack of statistical information regarding population before the end of the nineteenth century makes it difficult to assess the extent to which the population was depleted.

What we are able to trace is the dramatic changes that occurred once settlers began to arrive in significant numbers. For the people of the Interior direct contact with Europeans began with explorers who crossed the Rocky Mountains from the east. Alexander MacKenzie crossed through the land of the Carrier nation to reach the coast inand Simon Fraser traveled the length of the Fraser River in Both of these men worked for fur trading companies that established trading posts in the Interior in the early part of the nineteenth century.

Kamloops,G The earliest posts were built in the north by the Northwest Company: Fort McLeod inFort St. James inand Fort George now Prince George in Another early trading post was established at the junction of the North and South Thompson Rivers now the city of Kamloops in Within a decade of the above photograph being taken, a small town serving the settlers in the region grew up near this fort.


Nicholas Isawanhanhi, Huron chief, shown wearing the regimental coat commonly awarded to native trading captains during the fur trade. This painting circa oil on canvas, The birchbark canoe of the Algonquin peoples was ideal for travel by rivers and lakes separated by narrow watersheds or portages.

Previous Next Despite this, there were mutually satisfactory encounters as trade took place. Algonquian people brought furs, hides and fish in exchange for beads, mirrors and other European goods of aesthetic and perhaps spiritual value.

Indigenous-French Relations | The Canadian Encyclopedia

Soon the Algonquian exacted goods of more materialistic value, such as needles, knives, kettles or woven cloth, while the French displayed an insatiable desire for well-worn beaver cloaks. In the 16th century, the French, like the English and Spanish, laid claim to lands "not possessed by any other Christian prince" based on the European legal theory of Terra Nullius. This theory argued that uninhabited, or at least uncultivated lands, needed to be brought under Christian dominion.

Lawrence region, dated 15 Januaryand to Troilus de La Roche de Mesgouez for Sable Island in urged territorial acquisition either by voluntary cession or conquest. French Settlement and Land Claims By the early 17th century, as the fur trade expanded, a new policy of pacification emerged.

european relationship to the land

The French chose to settle along the Bay of Fundy marshlands and the St. Lawrence Valley from which the original St. Lawrence Iroquoians have long been debated, with explanations ranging from warfare and epidemics to simple migration or long-cycle crop rotation.

At the time, the French believed no Indigenous peoples were displaced to make way for settlers.

Europe’s most fortified border is in Africa

This gave the impression of peaceful cohabitation with certain Indigenous peoples, and remained characteristic of Indigenous-French relations up to the fall of Acadia and of New Francewith the notable exception of the Iroquois Wars of the 17th century. Beyondthe Acadian farmlands and the Laurentian seigneurial tract, Indigenous peoples continued to be fully independent, following their traditional lifestyle and customs on their ancestral lands.

european relationship to the land

Royal instructions to Governor Courcelle in emphasized that "the officers, soldiers and all his other subjects treat the Natives with kindness, justice and fairness, without harm or violence.

Lawrence basin and its hinterland the French Crown also recognized that Indigenous peoples were part of independent nations governed by their own laws and customs. They were referred to as allies, not subjects. Consequently, a military tribunal adjudicated legal proceedings involving Indigenous persons and French colonists. This sovereignty was exercised against European rivals through the allied nations, not at their expense through the suppression of local customs and independence.

When the Mi'kmaq eventually signed a treaty of peace and friendship with British authorities at Halifax inthe Abenaki who had taken refuge in Canada rebuffed the official delegate of the governor in Boston. The missionaries centred their evangelization efforts on the sedentary, horticultural and strategically located Huron-Wendat confederacy see Ste. Marie Among the Hurons.

Indigenous-French Relations

Factionalism that arose out of favouritism shown to converts and epidemics that decimated the population virtually brought the mission to a close. On two occasions, the Jesuits were spared execution or exile on charges of witchcraft only by French threats to cut off the trade on which the Wendat had become dependent.

european relationship to the land

Eight Jesuits, including the leader of the Ste. Following the dispersal in —49 by the Haudenosauneethe missionaries turned to other groups in the Great Lakes basin, including the Iroquois Confederacy, to little effect. Sainte-Marie Among the Hurons: Although the Innu did not remain long, some Abenaki refugees came to settle, and finally Wendat who escaped from the Haudenosaunee conquest of their territory.

european relationship to the land

Eventually there were reserves near each of the three French bridgeheads of settlement: The French sought to attract the Indigenous people close to their settlements with the view to having them adopt French agricultural sedentary life.

The English, in New England for example, drove Indigenous people off their traditional lands into the hinterland in order to establish agricultural holdings and permanent settlement. Nevertheless, reserves in Canada were also relocated from time to time at ever greater distances from the principal towns, mostly because of the desire of the missionaries to stem illegal trade and isolate Indigenous converts from the temptations of alcohol, prostitution and gambling.

It was often on the reserves that canoemen, scouts and warriors were recruited for trade and war. It is possible that this political organization, whose membership evolved over the years, dates back to the early days of the French regime at the time when the first reserves were created in the St.

Beginning with European fishermen and sailors along the Atlantic seaboard, the practice spread into the hinterland as traders and interpreters, later unlicensed coureurs des boisand finally garrison troops came into contact with hinterland communities.

Indigenous Australians: Australia’s First Peoples exhibition 1996-2015

Voyageurs and canoemen travelling to and from the upper country of Canada for the fur trade relied on Indigenous women to make and break camp, cook, carry baggage and serve as mistresses. Canon law forbade the marriage of Catholics with pagans, so missionaries would often instruct and baptize adults and children in order to regularize such unions. InLouis XV forbade most mixed marriages; nevertheless, the rise of mixed communities in the Great Lakes basin, particularly along Lake Superiorindicated the prevalence of the practice.