Knapp's relational development model - Wikipedia
Relationship Development. Knapp's Relationship Escalation Model It is common in this stage to self-disclose; Relationship becomes less formal; Begin to see. Knapp's relational development model portrays relationship development as a ten step process, broken into two phases. .. New York, HarperCollins; ^ Jump up to: Knapp, M. L., Vangelisti, A. L., & Caughlin, J. P. (). Interpersonal. All relationships have a similar framework in how they develop and end. Professor Mark Knapp studied this pattern and outlined ten stages that.
Separation, which tests whether communication and feelings of affection will continue despite an inability to physically be together.
Knapp's Relational Development Model
Third-party questioning, where one partner may attempt to find out the hidden feelings of the interested party indirectly by asking a friend to probe the person of interest for indication as to their depth of feeling and affection. Triangle tests, in which one partner sees if they can elicit jealousy from the other partner when another person expresses interest in the person concocting the test.
While all five of these methods are common methods of testing intensification efforts, it's important to note that endurance, separation, and triangle tests are generally the least constructive, and can even be destructive when it comes to building the relationship.
In addition to bonding, the integration stage makes up maintenance stage of a relationship. During this stage, the couple is fused and elements of their respective social identities, such as friends, belongings, and living spaces, are now shared.
Other verbal and nonverbal manifestations of the integration include the couple seeing their relationship as special or unique in some way, the exchange of "trophies" for the other to wear or display, and potentially similarities in manner, dress, and verbal behavior can be seen.
This stage puts the relationship on public display and suggests that the relationship is exclusive. This stage often involves marriage or another type of public contract, though marriage is not necessary to successfully bond. There is usually a turning point that happens in this stage that signals a change in the relationship, making the relationship intimate. Reaching this stage does not guarantee that the relationship will remain bonded, though many intimate relationships will remain in this stage until divorce, death, or another type of separation.
Differentiating[ edit ] Differentiating is a process of disengaging or uncoupling. During this stage, differences between the relationship partners are emphasized and what was thought to be similarities begins to disintegrate. Instead of working together, partners quickly begin to become more individualistic in their attitudes.
Conflict is a common form of communication during this stage; oftentimes, it acts as a way to test how much the other can tolerate something that may threaten the relationship. Knapp believes that differentiating can be the result of bonding too quickly; meaning, sufficient breadth and depth see: Social penetration theory was not established during the previous stages. A common solution to differentiating is for each partner to give the other some space, though extreme differentiating can lead to a damaged relationship.
Communication is limited to safe topics.
Knapp's relational development model
This stage is marked by less total communication in terms of number of interactions, depth and breadth of topics discussed, and communication occurs in shorter durations. Expressions of love and commitment also decrease.
Communication in this stage sees partners saying very little because they "know" how the other person will respond. Individuals will engage in imagined interactions to predict a conversation with their partner. At this stage, there is still some hope that the relationship can be revived.
However, in many cases there are too many costs accumulating and, therefore, most do not stay at this stage for long.
A key reason why individuals stay in this stage is to avoid the pain associated with terminating the relationship. When actual avoidance cannot take place, however, partners will simply avoid each other while they're together, treating the other as if they didn't exist. Essentially, the individuals in the relationship become separate from one another physically, emotionally, and mentally.
When there is communication, it is often marked by antagonism or unfriendliness "I just don't want to see or talk to you". Different forms of distancing are also common at this stage: No longer are they both receiving a mutually satisfying outcome from being with one another.
Neither one of them is happy and the relationship must come to an end. In this model, this step is unavoidable and relationships can terminate at any time. Termination can occur due to physical separation, growing socially or psychologically apart, or the death of one of the partners. Communication in this stage is marked by distance an attempt to put psychological and physical barriers between partners and disassociation messages that prepare one or both parties for their life without the other.
Movement is generally systematic and sequential.
This does not suggest that the process is linear or unchangeable; the phenomena is never at rest and is continually in flux. People do generally follow the same pattern, however. Each stage contains important presuppositions for the next. Coming apart Although in bonding the people intend to keep the relationship going forever, sometimes this does not happen.
In fact the divorce rate in a number of countries is higher than ever. Differentiating At first, and with the pressures of living, the closely bonded joint relationship starts to pull apart as the people have demands of different jobs, different friends and different interests.
Romantically, after a couple of years, people are no longer floating on a cloud and start to see themselves and the other person as individuals rather than a tight couple. In business, other customers, suppliers and work pressure start to reduce the chance to meet. Individuals may also be looking to advancing their career.Knapp's Relationship Model
Circumscribing As the people pull apart, the focus moves towards setting boundaries and delimiting differences. People have their own individual space, their own possessions, their own friends and so on.
- RELATIONSHIPS, STAGES OF
- Knapp's Relational Development Model
This can cause conflict, for example where both claim the same resource as their own. Such argument only serves to push them apart faster. Knowing this, they may avoid argument, but the differences still exist and work on the individual psyches. In business, there may be issues of quality and whether what is being delivered is that which is really needed.
Conflict may cause recourse to contract details. Stagnation A stagnant relationship has reached the stage where separation is complete in many ways, yet the relationship persists, perhaps through apathy, convenience or other lack of need to completely separate. In families, couples may stay together for the children even though their relationship has reached rock bottom. If tensions continue, it can be a difficult question as to whether separation is best or worst for the children.
In business, a stagnant relationship can lead to one or both parties receiving significantly less value than they once got from the relationship. Avoidance At some point the people see each other less and less, often deliberately avoiding contact. If they live together, one may go out whilst the other is in. If they work together, they may move jobs or otherwise ignore each other.
In avoiding one another, one of the first things to go is eye contact which may have faded long ago anyway. Even when in the same room, they will try not to look at one another. Avoidance also happens in business, where people see sorting out of a troublesome relationship or supplier as not in their current remit and so focus first on the issues that affect their key performance indicators.