Chapter THE PHARYNX AND LARYNX
Moving farther into the mouth, the opening between the oral cavity and throat . mandible, and the relationship between the deciduous and permanent teeth. Pharynx. The word throat is used for the parts of the neck anterior to the vertebral column, especially the pharynx and the larynx. The pharynx is the part of the. The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and larynx, or the tubes going down to the .
Refer to Figure in your atlas, which shows the pharynx opened up to reveal the interior of the pharynx, as seen from behind. Locate the epiglottis, piriform recesses, and esophagus, and trace the path of a bolus of food from the back of the tongue into the esophagus. On left Side view illustrating the major cartilaginous and ligamentous structural features of the larynx.
Shaded structures are imagined as seen through the thyroid cartilage or hyoid bone. On right Schematic drawing of the larynx as seen from the side to show how movement of the thyroid cartilage at the cricothyroid joint affects the tension of the vocal cords. Schematic drawing of the larynx as seen from above showing the thyroid cartilage, the arytenoid cartilages, and the vocal cords.
Human digestive system - Pharynx | bestwebdirectory.info
Schematic drawing of the larynx as seen from the side. Arrows indicate the direction of movement of the epiglottis arytenoid cartilages which take place cluring swallowing.
These features described below are not particularly important to understanding movements of the larynx, but you will find it somewhat difficult to understand the appearance of the larynx as seen through a laryngoscope or on dissection, until you appreciate that: This ligament is not actively moved during vocalization, and is therefore referred to as a "false vocal cord.
The entire larynx is covered with a mucous membrane, which is given different names in its different parts, depending on the structures it covers over or runs between. See Atlas Figureleft side. Do not waste any time during the dissection seeking the cuneiform and corniculate cartilages, as finding them grill not significantly advance your understanding of the larynx.
These are illustrated schematically in Figure 8 below: Schematic diagram coronal section illustrating the 3 parts of the laryngeal cavity. Modified slightly from Basmajian, Grant's Method of Anatomy, p.
There are two other terms you must know: Realize that the size of the rime glottidis is a major factor in determining how much air can enter the trachea and lungs. The muscles will be presented in functional groups. The posterior cricoarytenoid is the only abductor of the vocal cords. The actions of the horizontal and vertical fibers of the posterior cricothyroid muscle are illustrated in the center and right panels of Figure 6.
- Difference Between Pharynx and Larynx
The disposition of these muscles is illustrated in Figures 9 and 10 and in the left panel of Figure 6. Look at Figures 9 and 10 and try to understand how contraction of these muscles would exert a sphincter-like action on the vestibule to the larynx, drawing the epiglottis downward and backward, and the arytenoid cartilages forward, while keeping the vocal cords adducted.
Side view with part of the thyroid cartilage removed to show the muscles of the larynx. From Basmajian Grantts Method of Anatomy p. View from behind to show the muscles of the larynx.
On the left side the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle has been removed.
Note that this is the ONLY muscle innervated by this nerve. Distribution of the branches of the vagus nerve and the fibers of the cranial division of the accessory nerve which travel with it. Distribution of the branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve. This specialized lymphatic tissue is known as "tonsils" and is organized into three groups: It is found behind the mouth and nasal cavity and is superior to the larynx, esophagus, and trachea.
It is divided into three parts which are: It is part of both the respiratory and digestive systems and also plays a role in vocalization. It terminates at the level of the sixth vertebra. It is 12cm long and is narrowest at the point where it terminates into the esophagus.
The nasopharynx extends from the base of the skull to the upper surface of the soft palate. The oropharynx lies behind the oral cavity and extends from the uvula to the level of the hyoid bone. Anteriorly, it opens into the mouth.
The laryngopharynx is the lower part and lies inferior to the epiglottis. It extends to a point where the path divides into the digestive esophagus and respiratory larynx systems. It then continues with the esophagus. On the other hand, the larynx is the voice box and is also involved in sound production, breathing, and protection of the trachea from food which is aspirated. It has the vocal cords and manipulates volume and pitch. These are found just below the point where the pharynx divides into the esophagus and trachea.