United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics
Almost half of female (%) and male (%) victims of rape in the United States were Studies suggest that there is a relationship between intimate partner. In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a For example, in the United States, as of , an adult non-elderly male is 3 to of sex ratio at birth in the United States from over 62 years, statistical The relationship between natural factors and human sex ratio at birth, and. Note: The percentages of unmarried men and women have been Download Facts for Features: Unmarried and Single Americans Week: The number of unmarried men age 18 and older for every unmarried women in the United The percentage of opposite-sex, unmarried-partner couples in
Moreover, these scientists claim that the trends they found in Finland are similar to those observed in other countries with worse pollution and much greater pesticide use. Some studies have found that certain kinds of environmental pollutionin particular dioxins leads to higher rates of female births.
High birth sex ratios, some claim, may be caused in part by social factors. Reported sex ratios at birth, outside the typical range of 1. Another hypothesis has been inspired by the recent and persistent high birth sex ratios observed in Georgia and Armenia —both predominantly Orthodox Christian societies—and Azerbaijana predominantly Muslim society.
Since their independence from Soviet Union, the birth sex ratio in these Caucasus countries has risen sharply to between 1. They also consider the hypothesis that sons are preferred in these countries of the Caucasus, the spread of scans and there being a practice of sex-selective abortion; however, the scientists admit that they do not have definitive proof that sex-selective abortion is actually happening or that there are no natural reasons for the persistently high birth sex ratios.
However, during this period, there were also shifts in demographics that influence the sex ratio.
Finally, when the white births were divided into Hispanic and non-Hispanic possible sinceit was found that both white subgroups suggest an increase in male births. For example, Ruder has studied 1.
However, they report a significant effect of paternal age. Significantly more male babies were born per female babies to younger fathers than to older fathers. These studies suggest that social factors such as early marriage and quickly fertile couples may play a role in raising birth sex ratios in certain societies. Some researchers have in part attributed the high male to female sex ratios reported in mainland China in the last 25 years to the underreporting of the births of female children after the implementation of the one-child policythough alternative explanations are now generally more widely accepted, including above all the use of ultrasound technology and sex-selective abortion of female fetuses and, probably to a more limited degree, neglect or in some cases infanticide of females.
In the case of China, because of deficiencies in the vital statistics registration system, studies of sex ratios at birth have relied either on special fertility surveys, whose accuracy depends on full reporting of births and survival of both male and female infants, or on the national population census from which both birth rates and death rates are calculated from the household's reporting of births and deaths in the 18 months preceding the census.
He compared the sex ratio in East and West Germany for the years towith genetically similar populations. The population stressors theory predicts that the East German sex ratio should have been lower in when East Germany's economy collapsed than expected from its previous years.
Furthermore, the theory suggests that East German birth sex ratios should generally be lower than the observed sex ratio in West Germany for the same years, over time. According to Catalano's study, the birth sex ratio data from East Germany and West Germany over 45 years support the hypothesis.
The sex ratio in East Germany was also at its lowest in According to Catalano study, assuming women in East Germany did not opt to abort male more than female, the best hypothesis is that a collapsing economy lowers the human birth sex ratio, while a booming economy raises the birth sex ratio.
8 facts about love and marriage in America
Catalano notes that these trends may be related to the observed trend of elevated incidences of very low birth weight from maternal stress, during certain macroeconomic circumstances. Neither gravidity nor parity seem to affect the male-to-female ratio. For example, James suggested  that Ein-Mor results are based on some demographic variables and a small data set, a broader study of variables and larger population set suggests human sex ratio shows substantial variation for various reasons and different trend effects of length of gestation than those reported by Ein-Mor.
In another study, James has offered the hypothesis that human sex ratios, and mammalian sex ratios in general, are causally related to the hormone levels of both parents at the time of conception. Gender imbalance in Bahrain caused by policies that restrict female spouses and children of immigrant workers Gender imbalance[ edit ] Gender imbalance is a disparity between males and females in a population. As stated above, males usually exceed females at birth but subsequently experience different mortality rates due to many possible causes such as differential natural death rates, war casualties, and deliberate gender control.
According to Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn, two Pulitzer Prize-winning reporters for the New York Timesviolence against women is causing gender imbalances in many developing countries. The first is a rapid decline in fertility, either because of preference for smaller families or to comply with their nation's population control measures. Second, there is pressure for women to give birth to sons, often because of cultural preferences for male heirs.
Third, families have widespread access to technology to selectively abort female fetuses.
- Who Cheats More? The Demographics of Infidelity in America
- Human sex ratio
The authors describe similar gender discrimination and gendercide in Congo, Kenya, Pakistan, Iraq, Bahrain, Thailand and many other developing countries. Some of the factors suggested as causes of the gender imbalance are warfare excess of females, notably in the wake of WWI in western Europe, and WWIIparticularly in the Soviet Union ; sex-selective abortion and infanticide excess of males, notably in China as a result of the one-child policyor in India ; and large-scale migration, such as that by male labourers unable to bring their families with them as in Qatar and other Gulf countries .
Gender imbalance may result in the threat of social unrest, especially in the case of an excess of low-status young males unable to find spouses,  and being recruited into the service of militaristic political factions. Economic factors such as male-majority industries and activities like the petrochemicalagricultureengineeringmilitaryand technology also have created a male gender imbalance in some areas dependent on one of these industries.
Conversely, the entertainmentbankingtourismfashionand service industries may have resulted in a female-majority gender imbalance in some areas dependent on them. This increase in out-of-wedlock births was attributed to a change in the marriage market caused by the decline in the sex ratio. Qatar has the highest male ratio, with 2. For the group aged below 15, Sierra Leone has the highest female ratio with 0.
The value for the entire world population is 1. Countries on the Arabian peninsula tend to have a 'natural' ratio of about 1. This effect may be caused by emigration and higher male mortality as result of higher Soviet era deaths; it may also be related to the enormous by western standards rate of alcoholism in the former Soviet states. In the evolutionary biology of sexual reproductionthe operational sex ratio OSRis the ratio of sexually competing males that are ready to mate to sexually competing females that are ready to mate,    or alternatively the local ratio of fertilizable females to sexually active males at any given time.
On occasion, regions with a high male-low female sex ratio, like Alaska, have shown a correlation with a higher rate of reported rape. High ratios of males make it easier for women to marry, but harder for men. These men will remain single and will be unable to have families, in societies where marriage is regarded as virtually universal and social status and acceptance depend, in large part, on being married and creating a new family.
8 facts about love and marriage in America
Analyses of how sex ratio imbalances affect personal consumption and intra-household distribution were pioneered by Gary BeckerShoshana Grossbard-Shechtman  and Marcia Guttentag and Paul Secord. It has been shown that variation in sex ratio over time is inversely related to married women's labor supply in the U.
When there is a shortage of women in the marriage market, the women can "marry up", inevitably leaving the least desirable men with no marriage prospects. In many communities today, there are growing numbers of young men who come from lower classes who are marginalized because of lack of family prospects and the fact that they have little outlet for sexual energy. As Nicholas Wolfinger noted in an earlier postAmericans born in the s and s reported the highest rates of extramarital sex, perhaps because they were the first generations to come of age during the sexual revolution.
Who Cheats More? The Demographics of Infidelity in America | Institute for Family Studies
My analysis by gender suggests that men and women follow a slightly different age pattern when it comes to extramarital sex. Women born in the s and s are more likely than other women to be unfaithful to their spouse, and men born in the s and s have a higher rate than other age groups of men. The higher infidelity rates among these two cohorts contribute to the changing pattern in the gender gap as they grow older over time.
In addition to gender and age, the infidelity rate also differs by a number of other demographic and social factors. For example, cheating is somewhat more common among black adults. And among black men, the rate is highest: On the other hand, having a college degree is not linked to a higher chance of cheating. Given that many of these factors could be interrelated, I ran a regression model to test the independent effect of each factor.
Basically, holding all other factors equal, will each factor still be related to the odds of cheating? It turned out that most of these differences such as age, race, party identity, religious service attendance, family background are significant, even after controlling for other factors.
However, when it comes to who is more likely to cheat, men and women share very few traits. Separate regression models by gender suggest that for men, being Republican and growing up in an intact family are not linked to a lower chance of cheating, after controlling for other factors.
But race, age, and religious service attendance are still significant factors.