The relationship of Nature and Man in Turner’s sea-scenes and Melville’s Moby-Dick
Abstract. Primitive man, exemplified by the American Indian, was no better than modern man in his relationship to his environment. Although. Human's relationship with nature is a very complex system. that the “white” man was mistreating it: “The earth is not his brother, but his enemy. Even though the man is well aware of the laws of nature in the Yukon Territory, he defies those laws and begins a battle he cannot win. The odds are not in his.
Examples used in this review related to lifestyle and dietary choices Overlaps identified between the following research disciplines and fields: Examples used in this review related to natural resource management Overlaps identified between the following research disciplines and fields: Examples used in this review related to conservation behaviors and management of the natural environment Overlaps identified between the following research disciplines and fields: Further, while humanity, and indeed nature also, has not entirely escaped change, it cannot be assumed that all have been shaped by evolutionary mechanisms 42 Some have been shaped by what Radkau 75 terms as the power shift between humans and nature, which is evolving, as it has and will keep on doing.
The Human–Nature Relationship and Its Impact on Health: A Critical Review
As such, the human—nature relationship goes beyond the extent to which an individual believes or feels they are part of nature. It can also be understood as, and inclusive of, our adaptive synergy with nature as well as our longstanding actions and experiences that connect us to nature.
Over time, as research and scientific knowledge progresses, it is anticipated that this definition of the human—nature relationship will adapt, featuring the addition of other emerging research fields and avenues. It is, however, beyond the scope of this paper to review the many ways these concepts have been previously explored 84 — Since then, this shift has seen a major growth in the last 30 years, primarily in areas of positive health and psychology 88 — Despite its broad perspective of human health, the definition has also encountered criticism in relation to its description and its overall reflectance of modern society.
Similarly, others have highlighted the need to distinguish health from happiness 84 or its inability to fully reflect modern transformations in knowledge and development e.
- The Human–Nature Relationship and Its Impact on Health: A Critical Review
- A Point of View: Has our relationship with nature changed?
As such, there have been calls to reconceptualize this definition, to ensure further clarity and relevance for our adaptive societies Broadly, health has been measured through two theoretical approaches; subjective and objective First, physical health is defined as a healthy organism capable of maintaining physiological fitness through protective or adaptive responses during changing circumstances While it centers on health-related behaviors and fitness including lifestyle and dietary choicesphysiological fitness is considered one of the most important health markers thought to be an integral measure of most bodily functions involved in the performance of daily physical exercise These can be measured through various means, with examples including questionnaires, behavioral observations, motion sensors, and physiological markers e.
Second, mental health is often regarded as a broad concept to define, encapsulating both mental illness and well-being.
It can be characterized as the positive state of well-being and the capacity of a person to cope with life stresses as well as contribute to community engagement activities 83 It has the ability to both determine as well as be determined by a host of multifaceted health and social factors being inextricably linked to overall health, inclusive of diet, exercise, and environmental conditions.
As a result, there are no single definitive indicators used to capture its overall measurement. This owes in part to the breadth of methods and tends to represent hedonic e.
Third, social health can be generalized as the ability to lead life with some degree of independence and participate in social activities Indicators of the concept revolve around social relationships, social cohesion, and participation in community activities.
Further, such mechanisms are closely linked to improving physical and mental well-being as well as forming constructs, which underline social capital.
Owing to its complexity, its measurement focuses on strengths of primary networks or relationships e. Current Knowledge on the Human—Nature Relationship and Health This section summarizes existing theoretical and literature research at the intersection of the human—nature relationship and health, as defined in this review.
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Physical Health Though it is widely established that healthy eating and regular exercise have major impacts on physical health 98within the past 30 years research has also identified that exposure to nature e. Empirical research in this domain was first carried out by Ulrich 46 who found that those hospital patients exposed to natural scenery from a window view experienced decreased levels of pain and shorter recovery time after surgery. In spite of its increasing findings, some have suggested the need for further objective research at the intersect of nature-based parameters and human health 9.
This presents inherent difficulty in comparing assessment measures or different data types relative to the size and scale of the variables being evaluated 9. Further, there still remain evidence gaps in data on what activities might increase levels of physical health as well as limited amount of longitudinal datasets from which the frequency, duration, and causal directions could be inferred Mental Health Mental health studies in the context of connecting with nature have also generated a growing research base since the emergence of the Biophilia concept in the mids Furthermore, both Melville and Turner found means to vindicate animal instinct and condemn human choice: The sharkishness of human nature modeled on Nature finds no sympathy with either artist, which they hasten to articulate in diverse ways.
Human enterprise as violation of Nature 9The sharkishness of human nature, the unquenchable urge to compete, to possess was the inevitable result of a new kind of perspective that emerged in nineteenth-century America.
Santayana employs architectural symbolism to stress the opposition: Ishmael himself is representative of the said dichotomy: How many barrels will thy vengeance yield thee even if thou gettest it, Captain Ahab? If Melville tended to use contrasts to underline concepts of a dualistic nature, Turner did even more so: The red and yellow of the sunset in the background are juxtaposed to the silvery light of the moon in the foreground: The transition was a sad one for the painter; the lines the picture was exhibited with show that Turner must have felt a tinge of regret over the passing of the old era: But Trafalgar is over now, The quarter-deck undone; The carved and castled navies fire Their evening-gun.Human + Nature