Parents & Children - Aeneid Relationships1
The various father/son relationships shape and push forward the story of to the tragic story of Mezentius and Lausus, and finally the special relationship He we see him giving his son Iulus fatherly advice on how to be a proper warrior. His Epicu- rean element helps to explain his dramatic transformation from a . In addi- tion, Mezentius' close relationship with his son Lausus dominates the last. In Roman mythology, Mezentius was an Etruscan king, and father of Lausus. Sent into exile . Interaction. Help · About Wikipedia · Community portal · Recent changes · Contact page.
Am I, your father, saved by your wounds, by your death do I live? Because he is filled with such guilt, he finds that it is unbearable for him to live. Mezentius then takes to the battle field where he plans to deliberately lose his life. He matches up with Aeneas on the battlefield, with his final words being a plea for him and his son to be buried alongside one another. Last but not least, we see the relationship between Aeneas and his own son.
Good fortune learn from others. My sword arm now will be your shield in battle and introduce you to the boons of war. When, before long, you come to man's estate, be sure that you recall this.
Lausus - Wikipedia
Harking back for models in your family, let your father, Aeneas, and uncle, Hector, stir your heart" XII, He we see him giving his son Iulus fatherly advice on how to be a proper warrior. On the association of latro in Mezentius the Epicurean B. The introduction of Mezentius the philosopher is immediately reflected in the landscape — Interea genitor Tiberini ad fluminis undam vulnera siccabat lymphis corpusque levabat arboris acclinis trunco.
Meanwhile, at the banks of the Tiber River, the father was stanching his wounds with water and resting his body, leaning against the trunk of a tree.
At a dis- tance his bronze helmet hangs down from the branches and his heavy arms rest peacefully on the meadow. Chosen young men stand around; he himself, sick, breathing deeply, supports his neck and pours his beard brushed forward on his chest.
This pastoral scene forms a striking contrast to the world of war and seems to make a philosophic statement: Lucretius twice uses pastoral scenery to evoke an ideal of tranquility and self-sufficiency, and Virgil intersperses the Eclogues and Georgics with Epicurean-tinged landscapes of serenity.
La Penna see n. In particular, compare propter aquae rivum Lucr. Even his name is effaced in this merging with nature; he becomes genitor. Most critics, however, interpret it instead as an instinctual reaction displaying his utter grief and helplessness, since no verbalized prayer follows the gesture and there is no other indication that Mezentius has less- ened his contempt for the gods.
Lucretius uses quiesco, quies, or quietus 25 times. Philodemus not only allows for emotional reaction towards death, but is much more sympathetic in tone than Lucretius. Am I, your father, saved through these wounds of yours, living by your death? Nor is paterer, in the sense required here, in the slightest applicable. Yet how does an Epicurean know when prolonging life is going to bring pain or plea- sure?
This tragic scenario points to another fundamental problem with Epicu- rean ethics: Epicureans are encouraged to love their friends as much as them- selves,35 and they cited famous mythological friendships as an ideal, such as that between Orestes and Pylades, each of whom was willing to die for the other e. For possible ancient critique of Epicurean- ism on this score see Indelli and Tsouna-McKirahan 20—21 discussion of [Phld.
For an ancient discussion see Cic. Therefore whatever is seen does not perish completely, since nature replenishes one thing from another, nor does it allow anything to be born unless aided by the death of another.
The Aeneid transfers this cycle of life and death on the atomic level to a hu- man situation in Book 10 and exposes its tragic implications. The mutual love of Mezentius and Lausus is suppressed initially but fully developed in Book For arguments in favor of exitium, see Page ad The reading of the best MSS.
Heyne adopted it against the authority of the Mezentius the Epicurean rean: I should have paid the penalty to my coun- try and to the hatred of my people. I myself should have given my guilty life to every kind of death! Many critics accept exilium against the rhetoric.Trolliliin nr 9 pakkis sarved kokku
Mezentius deals with his past life, including his exile, in the passage that is introduced by idem ego and repeats nate. Nunc, repeated, refers to his present condition and imminent death. Mezentius does mention his exile inand the lines from the Thebaid are not so closely allusive that exul ego 9.
Even if Statius did read exilium, that does not prove that Virgil wrote it a century before. Finally, even if Virgil did write exilium, an Epicurean interpretation is still possible, since Epicureans were taught to scorn not only death but also exile and pain.
Mezentius finishes his soliloquy by announcing his intention to end his life — On the contrary, he meets his death in a heroic, Epicurean fashion.
This was his glory, this his comfort, and from all his battles he departed as victor on this horse. He addresses him grieving and begins with these words: One thing alone remains for him: See further my discussion of Epicurean suicide below. Mezentius the Epicurean Mezentius deals with his physical distress like a good Epicurean, by countering his present pain with mental strength haud deiectus and by recollecting pleasant times from his past — However, they are only inconsistent if the transformation of the sacrilegious Mezentius into a philosopher has gone unnoticed.
He handles his emotions in a particularly Epicurean way, and I would argue that Mezentius, and not Aeneas, is the character who best rep- resents Epicurean anger in the Aeneid.
On avocatio see also n. According to Philodemus, anger and a need for retali- ation are natural responses,49 but anger is connected to belief, and the under- lying belief determines the quality of the anger. Thus, good, Epicurean anger, based on correct notions about the world,50 may not look different from bad, unEpicurean anger to an observer, but it is different.
Not only does he show no joy at the prospect of vengeance, a fact brought out by the contrast with the happiness Aeneas feels when faced with an opportunity to kill Mezentius Aeneas agnovit enim laetusque precatur ,52 but his anger is short-lived.
For the similarity of appearance see Annas —97 n. This was the only way you could destroy me. For I neither tremble before death nor show consideration for any of the gods.
Cease, for I come to die, but first I bring these gifts to you. In addition, On Anger is part of a larger work, On Conduct and Characters, that includes a treatise devoted to the subject of therapeutic correction, On Frank Criticism. Cicero uses a similar phrase in his discussion of the importance of not fearing death in Tusc. The superlative of saevus is used only two other times in the Aeneid, once of Juno, when Aeneas is shown a vision of her destroying Troy 2.
Aeneas then approaches again with threats — In fact, Mezentius is displaying his vis animi if that expression is placed in a Lucretian context. There is nothing impious in my being killed, not thus did I come to battle, nor did my Lausus make this pact for me with you.
Destruction, slaughter, and death are natural parts of the life cycle, not manifestations of Furor impius. Mezentius the Epicurean On this point Mezentius is preceded by another Epicurean anger-therapist in the Aeneid.
In Book 2 Venus, the Epicurean goddess par excellence,63 stops Aeneas, who is consumed with anger and desire for vengeance, from killing Helen 2.
Venus uses the language of philosophic revelation66 to unveil the nature of things for Aeneas, and she reveals an im- age of cosmic destruction: Neptune, Juno, Pallas, and Jupiter are all cooper- ating in the effort to bring down Troy —18and she urges Aeneas to take flight and put an end to his toil Aeneadum genetrix, hominum divumque voluptas. An authentically Epicu- rean cure for anger would likewise be to distract the mind from its grievances and thoughts of getting even.
What about his father, his wife, and his son? For the combination of praecepta and revelation cf.
He should realize that vengeance has no point in such a world and focus instead on his family, a symbol of creation. Why tell him in this situation that the gods are destroy- ing Troy?
If Book 1 suggests a comfortably Stoical Jupiter, a further voice complicates this picture. He is left to contemplate the ugliest face of an indifferent nature that destroyed, even as it created, the highest form of civilization ….
I know the fierce hatred of my people surrounds me: I beg you, defend me against this fury and allow me to share a tomb with my son. Such seemingly contradictory beliefs and behavior have provoked ancient and modern debate over whether or not Epicureans were essentially inconsistent in their treatment of life after death.
In particular, the symbiotic relationship of Mezentius and Lausus has been shown to embody both the ideal of Epicurean friendship and the inherent contra- dictions of that Epicurean ideal. In this final request, then, Mezentius chooses to honor that ideal friendship with a romantic gesture that has a literary, in- stead of philosophic, pedigree.
He speaks these things and not at all unknowing he receives the sword to his throat and pours out his spirit onto his weapons in waves of blood. Other characters described as possessing some kind of general knowledge of the present or future include Dido 4. Note that with the exception of Dido and Mezentius, these figures are divine.
For a list of lines in which Aeneas is labeled inscius, nescius, or ignarus see Chew n. For the contrast between Mezentius and Aeneas with respect to knowledge see Nethercut 34 and Boyle The greatest contrast between Aeneas and Mezentius is revealed by their op- posing reactions to the eruption of chaos in their lives.
I have already detailed the calm acceptance that Mezentius displays in face of the worst devastation of his life, the loss of his son.
After a short-lived burst of emotion, he regains control and displays Epicurean piety by continuing to look on the world with a quiet mind despite the presence of furor around him.
Thus, in his behavior under stress, Mezentius displays the ability of the Epicurean world-view to help one cope with the assaults of the external world. In general, the account of the non-teleological character of the world, and of our place in it, convinces the pupil not to make impossibly high demands that, being frustrated, will give rise to new rage and new aggression. Even though Aeneas receives Epicurean anger-therapy in Book 2, he does not learn from it.
In fact, his behavior after the death of Pallas in Book 10, when he prepares human sacrifices —20 and kills suppliants and a priest —42, —is a textbook case of a man consumed with non-Epicurean anger. Armstrong and quoted by Fish These are lessons he learned from his father in the Underworld— not from his mother in Troy.