Odysseus Relationships by Emily Rivers on Prezi
Circe transformed Odysseus' crew into swine when. they land on her island but Hermes helped Odysseus resist her powers. Odysseus and. The Book of Mormon can help you build a relationship with God. Odysseus had been warned about Circe by Hermes, and given an herb that protected him. On the island of Aeaea where Circe lives Odysseus and his men venture into the jungle and some of his men get turned into The Relationship Between the Gods and Humans . does Athena do too much to help Odysseus.
Women were portrayed as the irrational. At the same time, this message of the need to repress women was sent to men, who had the need to keep their position in society and feared being over-ruled by women. During Ancient times, magic was related to those members of society that due to their physi- ology were connected to nature.
It was during this time that the binary opposites man-culture and female-nature were formed. Women were responsible for engendering, breeding, feeding, and other activities connected to nature. Men were responsible for culture within society.
Women were connected with the physiology of the body, with menstruation, parturition and lactation They also controlled the natural phenomena, which was seen as an inversion of the natural order of things and a threat to the cultural control exert by men What was above culture was divine and what was below was nature.
Women were identified with those orders of existence which were not related to culture, with the inferior ones. They were linked to the world of beasts and represented principles of transcendence. They were related to irrationality and subjectivity, reinforcing their relation to nature. This connection linked them to social reproduction, early childcare and those tasks that culture was designed to control and re- press She dwells in a forest and her potions are made of natural resources.
She transforms humans into animals and her house is guarded by wild ani- mals. All of this reflect the connection female goddess-nature. She is driven by her body. Lust drives her to go to bed with Odysseus. By acting as the active sexual partner, the goddess inverts the natural order 25, threatening social boundaries between men and women.
Women that deviated from their social role were seen as acting against their rational soul and moving into the irrational which lead to disaster Women that were without a kurios, or male authority, were seeing as an anomaly in the patriarchal system They were presented as incapable of controlling their sexual desires and keen to evoke into the irrational.
Men had to control women instincts. Mandas writes that there are not many evidences of real Greek witches. All literary witch fig- ures are foreigners. The cases of Medea and Circe are two good examples. Using foreigners as scapegoats has been used in many societies.
It is not surprising that these or other literary figures were presented as practicing erotic magic to fulfil their uncontrolled passions28 and that they were non-Greeks.
Portraying Circe as a female goddess that tries to sexually induce Odysseus reminds us of fifth century Athenian courtesans, who used magic to attract male partners. Erotic magic was presented as part of the equipment used by courtesans and prostitutes to obtain male partners and to maintain male faithfulness towards them Circe is probably considered the first por- trait of what will become the classic witch in Greek and Roman literature In fact, Circe is represented as a sorceress on the fifth century BC.
Stanford writes that even though there are not many evidences that confirm that 26 Mandas The witch of the woods is quite a common story on traditional folklore. We find mainly two types: In the Epic of Gilgamesh is found the beautiful enchantress Ishtar, who seems to reflect Circe.
Magical goddesses are not so typical on Greek mythology. They reflect better eastern myths. Page writes that the Odyssey is a variation of Mesopotamian epic narratives. She is a daughter of Helios, the Sun god, and of the Okeanid Perse34, both non-pantheon gods. She is a sister of Aietes and aunt of Medea, another eastern type character.
Medea is a sorceress that murdered her own children, and a sister of Pasiphae of Crete, who mated with a bull to engender the Minotaur All of this women acted unconventionally, against the rules stablished by Greek society. Circe lives at Aiaia, an island situated on the East, where the sun rises and dawn has her palace and danc- ing-floor Even her palace reflects an eastern type building rather than a Greek one, sur- rounded by a park and filled with wild animals.
Brilliant writes that Circe signifies a great danger, being vice and lust the consequences for anyone encountering her She is motivated by her personal satisfaction and pleasure She uses persuasion to attract men, offering them hospitality which turns to be a trap She is portrayed as the Mistress of the Beasts, exemplified by the tame wolfs and lions that stay by her side.
It is also about the oddness of her home, a kind of paradise ruled by the goddess. A place where beasts are do- mesticated. The similarities between Circe and Aphrodite are also clear, as the latter is very much related to the East and she is also portrayed as the Mistress of the Beasts Circe is the anti-social goddess who influenced representations of posterior sorceresses and magicians.
Magicians are marginal figures of society and women were marginal in Greece. Probably women were at risk to be framed as magic practicians. Those that did not follow the established rules were at risk to be targeted. Circe is acting against these rules. She is an in- dependent woman, unmarried, living without a patron and a foreigner inhabiting the far East At some point men are divided into two groups and the group led by Eurylochos, which according to Gantz is clearly the loser42, goes to meet Circe.
Eurylochos led twenty-two men into the palace but stays outside.
Then, the crew are invited to a drink and Circe transforms them into swine. Eurylochos did not en- ter the palace, as if he thought that there was some deception It is clear that when the men are entering the palace something is going to happen. I wonder why all men were trans- formed into pigs and Eurylochos, the one who was portrayed to have bad temper and to give bad counsel, was saved from Circe.
- What is the relationship between Circe and Odysseus?
- Is Odysseus a Faithful Husband?
First they arrived near to where she lived. All of these characteristics reminded Greeks of their home so they felt welcomed to her palace Circe offered them honey, cheese, barley and Pramnian wine in a poisonous potion. This wel- coming drink is clearly a goddess anti-social behaviour In Ancient Greece, the hospitality 42 Gantz Instead, she offers them food for the dead, which clearly was not within hospitality customs.
It might be that the drink was offered to them with the intention of introducing the crew into her realm, the realm of the Underworld.
Circe by Madeline Miller review – Greek classic thrums with contemporary relevance
Then she touches them with her wand, which is an aggressive and anti-social behaviour. Female usage of magical potions reflects how male and female gender was socially con- structed. Love-potions in ancient myths were mainly used by wives and concubines against their husbands and lovers The use of magical love-potions was defined as pharmakis or pharmakeutria Circe though is described as using many drugs, which in Ancient Greece was named polu-pharmakos The potion she offered Odysseus could be interpreted as an intention to make him forget his home The moly plant that Hermes gives to Odysseus is mentioned but Homer does not explain how it works.
In fact, Homer did not use much of his time in writing about the magic plant or about magic in general. The structure of the episodes tell us that Homer did make some parts long and some short and seems that the magical part of the story was made short in purpose.
This seems to imply that the writer wanted to reduce the magic part in the story Regardless of the writer intentions, magic has become a big matter for discussion in modern times. This protective pharmakon is given by Hermes, who was the leader for guiding those that go to Hades He is the psychopomp of the hero.
In previous stories from Uruk and Sultantepe the 49 Faraone Underworld and Heaven were not connected. There were guides such as Hermes, who con- nected both worlds The root moly itself symbolises the theme of reversal. The root is black and the flower is white as milk56, which connects it with this reverse role of woman and her conflict with culture. After Odysseus felt threaten by Circe wand 57, his response is to sheathe the sword.
The attack of Odysseus over Circe is very old, probably from the Akkadian tale of Nergal and Ereshki- gal. Nergal and Odysseus undertake dangerous journeys and encounter powerful goddesses who are mean to men This manner of neutralising magical arts is common in other non- Greek stories. Similar stories exist on the sanskrit story of Bhimaparakrama and on the Bedr Basim It seems that Odysseus intended to inject no harm to Circe, and its significance might be just talismanic60, just as the mentioned protective talismans used in Near Eastern cultures.
If we return now to the crew transformed into swine, Hill writes that archeological evidence probes the transformation was not just into swine, but into other wild animals such as boars, donkeys and gooses.
These findings hint at the possibility that other versions of the same sto- ry did present Circe as using her potion to convert men into different animals This might 55 Crane Stanford writes that the wand that Circe used for magic, in reality is just a long stick to control her menagerie, which she used to bring Odysseus companions out of the sty and tried to use to direct Odysseus to it. This view is based on the fact that Circe is not a nordic witch, a place where wands were used, but a semi-oriental potion-enchantress.
As such, she used potions and sticks to drive animals, but no wands. Even odder is the episode of the stag then, which could imply that another man was converted into a wild animal. If this was the case we would be speaking of cannibalism It could be interpreted as if Odysseus entered the Otherworld following the prey and returned victorious with food for his crew, which rose the morals of the group.
There are folk tales from South America and India that suggest that this episode might be consistent with the motif of transformation from human to beast, a motif also recurring in the Odyssey Circe and her female companions acted out of the natural laws when mixing the beast and the human.
Just as the gods do when mixing humans with themselves The image of the Mino- taur is a good example, half beast and half human, a creature that is feared because has trans- 62 Page Odysseus has no desire for vengeance after he withstood her spell. Instead, after Circe swears an oath, he accepts her offers, he is bathed with ointment and sleeps with her.
Circe then turns into gentleness and kindness, sympathising with their grieves and offering them feast and drink to revive their spirits Circe shows a blend of the beautiful and the terrible, the good and evil First she had the determination to enchant Odysseus crew and tried to enchant the hero. But after this, she becomes best supporter, guiding them on their visit to the Under- world.
She tries seducing the hero, but as she is asked to swear an oath, she shares her bed with him and becomes a beautiful companion, who offers food and wine, and sends fair winds for their journey It is also interesting to understand why Odysseus declined having dinner with Circe. Some scholars believe that in Ancient Greece it was considered that having dinner together implied a more equal relationship than having sex It seems that the hero rejected supper because accepting her invitation might have implied having a wife-husband relationship.
Maybe the companions were released prior them having sexual intercourse Nevertheless, it seems that Odysseus did not trust Circe as to have supper with her In Ancient Greece courtesans are portrayed as having masculine characteristics.
Circe is also a masculine character. An autonomous woman, living independently at her own house, with- out a male guard, using erotic love-potions and having aggressive behaviours against men Courtesans relied on erotic love-potions to attract men, which was a method used mainly by women.
Men used aggressive attraction spells and women used love-potions to protect exist- ing relationships. Sometimes though women used more aggressive methods to attract men It is important to remember that some authors relied mainly on literary sources, which might not reflect the reality of the time.
Some other scholars believe that literary sources of the time were a way to denigrate women for their roles as cooks and healers After he evokes chthonic powers against her, she suffers same afflictions as him, which ends up bringing her into his arms. Male poets of the time created these same literary stories, which presented love-struck fe- males performing love-potions against men.
It might be that literature written by men repre- sented male collective frustrations for the power of their uncontrolled love Unfortunately, there are no enough sources to make a comparison be- tween literature and reality. Women are presented as the Other, the unessential, the incidental as opposed to the essential. De Beauvoir believes that one of the reasons behind the alterity of women in Ancient Greek 73 Faraone Civilization is a stake, Homer seems to say.
The problem, on the other hand, is that Odysseus seems to disregard it himself! How can he deserve our praise when his sexual conduct seems to mock the very idea of faithfulness?
Odyssey: Calypso and Circe
One common reply to this problem is to note that ancient Greek concepts of marital fidelity were obviously quite different from modern Christian ones, and to warn students against reading their own ideas of morality back into a foreign period. This reply is an evasion, however. He appears to be unfaithful by any definition, ancient, Christian, or otherwise. Maybe the problem is not a clash of ancient and modern ideas about marital fidelity, but a clash of simple definitions.
Two opposite senses of the word jump immediately to mind. This has troubling implications for readers, leading them to condemn Homer for inconsistency or sloppiness, or a lack of concern for detail.
Odysseus and Circe
On the other hand, if being faithful means having faith — trusting in another — then things make a lot more sense, for Odysseus has this quality in abundance. Just as Penelope trusts that he will return to save his family and his city, so Odysseus trusts that Penelope is waiting for him. He depends on it utterly. He has no plan B should he arrive to find his throne despoiled. This idea of faithfulness boils down to a reliance on the other, rather than an ordering of the self.
It is not the presence of correct conduct, but rather the absence of other resources. The faithful one depends for his identity on the work of another.