Relationships & Biodiversity – High School - Cornell Institute for Biology Teachers
Relationships and Biodiversity NYSED Lab Review. Michael Comet. South Lewis High School. Turin, NY. Please note: “Curol” is a fictitious plant extract. Relationships and Biodiversity. A Laboratory Activity for the Living Environment. Introduction. Botana curus is a valuable plant because it produces Curol. Relationships and Biodiversity, Student Answer Packet, 1 of 6 and Blechveraly Sudent Answer Packet, sora. Name. Period. Date. Structural Evidence for.
Test the plant extract from Botana curus for the presence of enzyme M. Put one small scoop of indicator powder into one depression of the well tray. Use a clean microtip dropper to add 5 drops of Botana curus extract to the indicator powder. A fizzing reaction indicates that enzyme M is present. Repeat the test for enzyme M using the other plant extracts. Record the results of your tests for enzyme M in Table I.
Relationships and Biodiversity Lab Write up
Rinse the well tray and blot it dry using a paper towel. Complete the chromatography tests and observations before going on. For this test, you will use the plastic bags containing colored paper strips representing portions of DNA molecules.
Simulate this cutting process as follows: Remove one of the colored paper strips from the plastic bag labeled Botana curus. The shaded areas represent where the enzyme would bind to cut the DNA.
Use scissors to cut off all the "white space" above and below the string of letters representing the DNA bases. Also remove the white paper to the left and right of the string of letters. This will enable them to fit better in the spaces provided in Table 2 on page 9. Now cut the strip between the C and G within each of the shaded enzyme recognition sites. This will result in several fragments of DNA.
Scientists use gel electrophoresis to separate the DNA fragments resulting from this binding and cutting process. In an electrical field, the negatively charged DNA molecules migrate through a gel-like material toward the positively charged pole.
The smaller molecules migrate more rapidly through the gel than the larger ones do. Simulate the effect of electrical current on the DNA fragments by counting the number of letters bases in each of the fragments and moving them to the appropriate location on the electrophoresis gel. Refer to the number of DNA letters indicated along the left side of the gel to determine the final position for each fragment.
Call your teacher over to check your work for Botana Curus before you continue with the DNA from the other species.
Mark a horizontal line to indicate the final position of each fragment of Botana Curus DNA on the simulated electrophoresis gel Table 2then record the size on the fragments number of bases in each in Table 1.
Repeat this process for each of the other species X, Y, and Z: Mark the final position of the DNA bands for each species on the gel Table 2then record the size of the fragments number of bases in each in Table 1. Discard the used paper DNA fragments and return all other materials to their original location. The sequences of DNA bases below represent parts of the genes responsible for the production of one type of protein, an enzyme, produced by Botana Curus and Species X, Y, and Z.
Under each DNA sequence, write the complementary messenger RNA base sequences that each of these gene fragments would produce. Use the universal genetic code table your teacher provides to translate the messenger RNA base sequences into sequences of amino acids in the protein produced by each species.
Write the sequences of amino acids under the messenger RNA sequences. Analysis of Results 1.
NYS Relationships and Biodiversity Lab
Using the information in Table I, identify which plant is most closely related to Botana Curus and I therefore most likely to produce Curol. Explain your choice by citing specific evidence from your research. Did the addition of molecular evidence support or refute the hypothesis that you made earlier based on structural evidence only? Explain why or why not.
Which kind of evidence-structural or molecular-is most helpful in making decisions about relationships between species?
Relationships and Biodiversity Lab Write up
Based on your observations, list three characteristics structural or molecular that all four species have in common.
Provide a biological explanation for the common characteristics that these species share. Scientists frequently use branching tree diagrams to represent graphically the relationships between species.
Which branching tree, shown below, best represents the relationships among the four species? State two additional kinds of evidence you might use to further support your hypothesis about the relationship between Botana curus and species X, Y, and Z.Relationships & Biodiversity - Pause & Play Student Directions
Base your answers to questions 8 through 10 the reading passage below and on your understanding of biology. The Biodiversity Crisis Plant and animal species are being lost at a rate that is unprecedented in the history of life. Human activities are responsible for much of this biodiversity crisis.
Some biologists estimate that within the next century, half of Earth's current species may become extinct. Extinction and the loss of biodiversity occurs when species do not have adaptations that enable them to survive environmental changes. Human activities such as destruction of natural habitats and pollution are thought to be the major environmental factors causing the decline of species, but others are also important.
Over-hunting, introduction of foreign species that compete with native species, and removal of predators have also played a significant role in endangering some species. Why should we worry about the loss of biodiversity? We depend on many species for food, clothing, shelter, oxygen, soil fertility-the list goes on and on. Large-scale extinctions of other species may be a warning to us that we are altering the biosphere so rapidly that our species is threatened too.
Biodiversity ensures the availability of a rich variety of genetic material that may lead to future agricultural or medical discoveries having significant value to humankind. Some species have been used as sources for medicines and other useful products. Scientists are concerned about this loss of biodiversity. State two ways in which human practices can maintain biodiversity.
Give two reasons why biodiversity should be conserved. The letters shown below represent bases in a small part of a DNA molecule. Use the genetic code chart to determine the sequence of amino acids in the protein that would result from the DNA molecule in question 6. Which kind of evidence is most accurate in making decisions about relationships amongst the plant species? DNA fragment bands 9.
If additional data was collected for these plant species, what should be used to provide the best evidence for relationships between the plant species? Which evidence is correctly matched with the lab technique used to collect the data?
DNA fragments -- electrophoresis 4. To prepare the plant DNA samples of analysis, the students most likely used 1. Which statement is most likely to be false?
Organisms with similar molecular similarities are likely to be related. In order for a species to survive for millions of years, it must contain diversity. Proteins and enzymes are produced as a result of an organisms genetic code. Which statement is true? Amino acids are the building blocks of carbohydrates.