Relationship of data representation bit byte and character

Data Representation - Computer Science Field Guide

relationship of data representation bit byte and character

This is the basis of data representation - anything that can have two different Each character in braille is represented with a cell of 6 dots. .. This is because these are full numbers of bytes (a byte is 8 bits), and makes it Another exercise to see the relationship between bit patterns and colour images is provided here. At the smallest scale in the computer, information is stored as bits and bytes. of 8 bits; e.g. 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0; One byte can store one character, e.g. 'A' or 'x' or '$'. Bit, Byte, and Binary. Number of bits. Number of values. 2 raised to the power. Number of bytes Byte. One character. 10 KiloByte (Kb). Small text. 1,, its data registers are 32 bits wide or that it uses 32 bits to identify each address in memory. Nibbles are important in hexadecimal and BCD representations.

On a magnetic disk it's stored with magnetism whether a tiny spot on the disk is magnetised north or south. The idea that everything stored and transmitted in our digital world is stored using just two values might seem somewhat fantastic, but here's an exercise that will give you a little experience using just black and white cards to represent numbers. In the following interactive, click on the last card on the right to reveal that it has one dot on it.

Now click on the previous card, which should have two dots on it. Before clicking on the next one, how many dots do you predict it will have? Carry on clicking on each card moving left, trying to guess how many dots each has.

Click to load Binary Cards Use the interactive online at http: Now try making up other numbers of dots, such as 11, 29 and Is there any number that can't be represented? To test this, try counting up from 0. This is an important pattern in data representation on computers. The number 22 requires the cards to be "white, black, white, white, black", 11 is "black, white, black, white, white", 29 is "white, white, white, black, white", and 19 is "white, black, black, black, white".

You should have found that any number from 0 to 31 can be represented with 5 cards. Each of the numbers could be communicated using just two words: For example, 22 dots is "white, black, white, white, black".

BBC Bitesize - GCSE Computer Science - Introducing binary - Revision 2

Or you could decode "black, black, white, white, white" to the number 7. This is the basis of data representation - anything that can have two different states can represent anything on a digital device. For example, a piece of computer memory could have the following voltages: They are just using physical mechanisms such as high and low voltage, north or south polarity, and light or dark materials. Since there are only two digits, the system is called binary.

The short word for a "binary digit" is made by taking the first two letters and the last letter a bit is just a digit that can have two values. Every file you save, every picture you make, every download, every digital recording, every web page is just a whole lot of bits.

relationship of data representation bit byte and character

These binary digits are what make digital technology digital! And the nature of these digits unlock a powerful world of storing and sharing a wealth of information and entertainment. Computer scientists don't spend a lot of time reading bits themselves, but knowing how they are stored is really important because it affects the amount of space that data will use, the amount of time it takes to send the data to a friend as data that takes more space takes longer to send!

Byte - Wikipedia

Understanding what the bits are doing enables you to work out how much space will be required to get high-quality colour, hard-to-crack secret codes, a unique ID for every device in the world, or text that uses more characters than the usual English alphabet.

This chapter is about some of the different methods that computers use to code different kinds of information in patterns of these bits, and how this affects the cost and quality of what we do on the computer, or even if something is feasible at all.

To begin with, we'll look at Braille. Braille is not actually a way that computers represent data, but is a great introduction to the topic.

relationship of data representation bit byte and character

More than years ago a year-old French boy invented a system for representing text using combinations of flat and raised dots on paper so that they could be read by touch. The system became very popular with people who had visual impairment as it provided a relatively fast and reliable way to "read" text without seeing it.

relationship of data representation bit byte and character

Louis Braille's system is an early example of a "binary" representation of data there are only two symbols raised and flatand yet combinations of them can be used to represent reference books and works of literature.

Each character in braille is represented with a cell of 6 dots.

relationship of data representation bit byte and character

Each dot can either be raised or not raised. Different numbers and letters can be made by using different patterns of raised and not raised dots. Let's work out how many different patterns can be made using the 6 dots in a Braille character. If braille used only 2 dots, there would be 4 patterns.

And with 3 dots there would be 8 patterns You may have noticed that there are twice as many patterns with 3 dots as there are with 2 dots. It turns out that every time you add an extra dot, that gives twice as many patterns, so with 4 dots there are 16 patterns, 5 dots has 32 patterns, and 6 dots has 64 patterns. Can you come up with an explanation as to why this doubling of the number of patterns occurs?

Why does adding one more dot double the number of possible patterns? This gives 16 4-dot patterns. And then, you can do the same with one more dot to bring it up to 5 dots. This process can be repeated infinitely.

So, Braille, with its 6 dots, can make 64 patterns. That's enough for all the letters of the alphabet, and other symbols too, such as digits and punctuation.

ARCHIVED: What are bits, bytes, and other units of measure for digital information?

So how does Braille relate to data representaton? Blaauw, Gerrit Anne ; Brooks, Jr. Byte denotes a group of bits used to encode a character, or the number of bits transmitted in parallel to and from input-output units. A term other than character is used here because a given character may be represented in different applications by more than one code, and different codes may use different numbers of bits i. In input-output transmission the grouping of bits may be completely arbitrary and have no relation to actual characters.

[Hindi-हिन्दी ] Bits vs Bytes : Explained !! #AnkushTyagiExplains

The term is coined from bitebut respelled to avoid accidental mutation to bit. A word consists of the number of data bits transmitted in parallel from or to memory in one memory cycle. Word size is thus defined as a structural property of the memory. Block refers to the number of words transmitted to or from an input-output unit in response to a single input-output instruction.

Block size is a structural property of an input-output unit; it may have been fixed by the design or left to be varied by the program. Archived PDF from the original on These heights represent the decibel level of the sound.

Introducing binary

Thus a spoken word might occupy several hundred bytes - each being a sample of the sound wave of the voice at a small fraction of a second. If these bytes were sent to a computer's speaker, the spoken word would be reproduced.

WAV is a common format on the Internet. Program Data as Bytes. When you buy a piece of software on a CD or diskette, you are getting a collection of instructions that someone wrote to tell the computer to perform the task that the software is meant to do. Each instruction is a byte, or a small collection of bytes.

If a computer used one byte for an instruction, it could have up to instructions. Later we will look at what these instructions are, but for now, you should realize that a byte could also be a computer's instruction. The conversion of instructions to bytes is shown in Figure 8.

The programming process allows humans to write instructions in an English-like way. A software program called a compiler then transforms the English-like text into the bytes for instructions that the computer understands.