What is Situational Leadership? Flexibility Leads to Success
Situational Leadership: the Lifecycle challenges. Situational Life Cycle Leadership There are two major types of behavior: 1) task and 2) relationship. In , Blanchard and Hersey developed situational leadership theory in their classic book “Management of Organizational Behavior. Situational Leadership® is based on the relationship between leaders and of relationship behavior and task behavior are applied and communicated to the.
Malcolm Knowles' research in the area of adult learning theory and individual development stages, where he asserted that learning and growth are based on changes in self-concept, experience, readiness to learn, and orientation to learning.
Kanfer and Ackerman's study of motivation and cognitive abilities and the difference between commitment and confidence, task knowledge and transferable skills.
Tuckman's later work identified a fifth stage of development called "termination". Tuckman found that when individuals are new to the team or task they are motivated but are usually relatively uninformed of the issues and objectives of the team. Tuckman felt that in the initial stage forming supervisors of the team need to be directive.
Stage two, Storming, is characterized by conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues and how best to approach the task.
These behaviors serve as resistance to group influence and task requirements and can cause performance to drop. As the team moves through the stages of development, performance and productivity increase.
Lacoursiere's research in the s synthesized the findings from groups. Until Lacoursiere's work inmost research had studied non-work groups; Lacoursiere's work validated the findings produced by Tuckman in regard to the five stages of group development. Susan Wheelan's year study, published in and titled Creating Effective Teams, which confirmed the five stages of group development in Tuckman's work.
Development levels[ edit ] Blanchard's situational leadership II model uses the terms " competence " ability, knowledge, and skill and " commitment " confidence and motivation to describe different levels of development. The situational leadership II model tends to view development as an evolutionary progression meaning that when individuals approach a new task for the first time, they start out with little or no knowledge, ability or skills, but with high enthusiasm, motivation, and commitment.
Blanchard views development as a process as the individual moves from developing to developed, in this viewpoint it is still incumbent upon the leader to diagnose development level and then use the appropriate leadership style. In the Blanchard SLII model, the belief is that an individual comes to a new task or role with low competence knowledge and transferable skills but high commitment. As the individual gains experience and is appropriately supported and directed by their leader they reach development level 2 and gain some competence, but their commitment drops because the task may be more complex than the individual had originally perceived when they began the task.
With the direction and support of their leader, the individual moves to development level 3 where competence can still be variable—fluctuating between moderate to high knowledge, ability and transferable skills and variable commitment as they continue to gain mastery of the task or role.
Finally, the individual moves to development level 4 where competence and commitment are high. Research on the model[ edit ] Despite its intuitive appeal, several studies do not support the prescriptions offered by situational leadership theory.
He found that newly hired teachers were more satisfied and performed better under principals who had highly structured leadership styles, but the performance of more experienced and mature teachers was unrelated to the style their principals exhibited. In essence, the Vecchio findings suggest that in terms of situational leadership, it is appropriate to match a highly structured S1 style of leadership with immature subordinates, but it is not clear incomplete research whether it is appropriate to match S2, S3, or S4, respectively, with more mature subordinates.
This indicates that this study is highly reliable. Factor Analysis of Situational Behavior Part B To analyze the obtained data, a factor analysis is conducted using dimension reduction in order to identify the regression; here we should note that this factor analysis was performed while forcing the results to produce 3 dimensional factors.
The results obtained are displayed in table 3 below: Communalities Table 3 represents the variables that have acceptable extraction values. The results show that all values are acceptable since all extraction values are greater than 0.
Table 4 represents all total variance explained which is another important tool in factor checking.
The total variance below shows a cumulative of Total Variance Explained Table 5 shows that the 11 variables are grouped into 3 main components variables. The three stated factors are summed up in the paragraphs below: Component Matrixa The first variable group sums up the main characteristics of situational leadership stated in the literature review, based on Hersey and Blanchard studies: Table 6 represents the variables that have acceptable extraction values.
As for the employee productivity and performance PP2 components are generated: Total Variance Explained Table 8. Regression Analysis - Regression 1 In order to complete the analysis of this study, two regression analysis will be performed.
The first regression analysis will be conducted between the first factor Situational Leadership and the second factor Leader Flexibility ; while considering factor 3 as the dependent variable and factor 1 as the independent.Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
The results of this regression are shown below: Model Summary It is shown in table 6 that R is equal to 0. This value shows the correlation between the included factors and their variables, indicating in this case a good level of correlation.
In this case R square is equal to 0. After identifying the correlation between the variables, it is important to check the significance of the analysis by checking the ANOVA table which is presented below: In addition, it is shown that the model is highly significant since the significance value in the regression row and the last column of the table Sig.
Another important result is F, which is equal to As a result the regression formula is: Model Summary It is shown in table 12 that R is equal to 0.
A detailed literature review was given, including many theories discussing situational leadership theories and previous studies conducted in this topic. As a conclusion of the results, we can clearly conclude that employees working in the hospitals of North Lebanon are influenced by situational leadership behaviors of their managers, as hypotheses H1 and H2 state.
Recommendations Situational leadership was proven to be a very effective leadership style to motivate employees in different kinds of sectors.
What is Situational Leadership? How Flexibility Leads to Success
Therefore, and according to the results of this research paper, we can draw the following conclusions: Thus, leaders inside the organizations are recommended to improve their relationship behavior in order to increase employees productivity. According to the test conducted on H1, motivational level of employees and situational leadership are positively associated in Lebanese hospitals.
From this perspective, a continuous adoption of situational leadership style is very important to productivity improvement of employees. References  Afshinpour, S.
Situational Leadership Theory
Journal of Organizational Resources and Management Research. The impact of Situational Laedership on Employee's performance in the air traffic control sector. Journal of management studies. The transformational and transactional leadership of men and women.
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP® - Situational Leadership® Training & Management Model by CLS
Journal of Training and Development. Overview of the health sector in Lebanon. An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Examining teamwork and leadership in the fields of public administration, leadership, and management. Counseling the job insecure client. Journal of Employment Counseling. Scott, Foreman and Company.
A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process. A model for leading telecommuters. Journal of Nursing Management. The Business world, P, new jersey: Retrieved from Lebanese Ministry of Economy: A qualitative and quantitative review.
Journal of Applied Psychology. Journal of Applied psychology. Leadership emergence in autonomous work teams: Jornal of the Knowledge Economy. Patterns of aggresssive behaviors in experimentally created social climates. Journal of applied psychology. Motivation and stakeholder acceptance in technology-driven change management: Implications for the engeneering manager.
An application of validity generalization procedures. A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leader perceptions: