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Evaluation of acid-base and electrolyte disturbances in dogs with diabetic ketosis and ketoacidosis. Acid-base imbalance Diabetes mellitus Diabetic ketoacidosis Dogs Electrolytes.
Diabetic ketoacidosis DKA is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus DM in small animals. DKA is a medical emergency characterized by extreme metabolic abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, ketonemia, dehydration, and electrolyte losses. Despite it is a common disorder and with high mortality, the patterns of the acid-base disturbances in dogs with DKA were not evaluated objectively. Many of the assumptions about DKA in dogs are derived from studies in human beings and experimental studies in dogs.
The objective of the present study was to describe the acid-base and electrolytic disturbances in dogs with DKA and diabetic ketosis DK according to their eletrolticos, adequacy of the compensatory mechanisms e occurrence of mixed disturbances.
Refeeding syndrome: clinical and nutritional relevance
On the basis of clinical criteria, the dogs were assigned to one of two subgroups: Arterial blood gases and plasma electrolytes sodium, chloride, potassium and, ionized calciumand serum total magnesium and inorganic phosphorus were determined in all dogs.
The acid base abnormalities were evaluated systematically by the Van Slyke-Henderson-Hasselbalch method and the results compared to those obtained from 37 healthy dogs control group. E,etroliticos acidosis was observed in seven patients.
Fifteen of the dogs with metabolic acidosis had coexisting respiratory alkalosis. The distribuition of the electrolytes values was different between the study group and the control group, with the exception of serum magnesium.
The distribution of the electrolytes values was similar between the subgroups, with the exception of plasma potassium. Hyponatremia and hypochloremia were the most common observed electrolyte abnormalities showed in eletroliticoos with DK or DKA.
Serum inorganic phosphorus values were similar between the subgroups. Hyperphosphatemia was a common finding and hypophosphatemia was not observed.
Most of the dogs were hypocalcemic on admission. Mixed acid-base disorders, mainly metabolic normochloremic acidosis with coexisting respiratory alkalosis are common in dogs with diabetic ketosis or ketoacidosis and electrolytic disturbances, mostly hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia, ddisturbios also common.
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