ISOLASI MINYAK ATSIRI DARI TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorrhiza ROXB) kehalusan bahan, jenis pelarut, lama ekstraksi, konsentrasi pelarut, nisbah. pdfPelarut dan Lama Ekstraksi), Skripsi, Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian, Rakhmad., (), Studi Pembuatan Serbuk Effervescent Temulawak (Curcuma. PENGARUH JENIS PELARUT PADA EKSTRAKSI KURKUMINOID DARI RIMPANG TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb) Chem Info Journal Jurnal Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika. Open Journal Systems. User.

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Jurnal Ekstraksi Download Report. Published on Apr View Download 9. Upgradation of bio-oil before utilization is desirable to obtain high grade fuel because of its drawbacks like high viscosity, low heating value, poor stability and high corrosiveness. Organic acids in bio-oils can be converted to their corresponding esters by catalytic esterification temilawak this greatly improved quality of bio-oils.

We selected and NKC-9 type ion exchanger resins as esterification catalysts for upgrading bio-oil. The catalytic activity was first investigated by model reaction. The esterification of bio-oil with methanol was conducted in a batch reactor. Acid numbers of upgraded bio-oil on resin and Murnal resin were lowered by A fixed bed reactor was used for continuous catalytic esterification of bio-oil on resin, and the acid number remarkably decreased by jjrnal The accelerated ageing test showed improvement of stability, and the aluminum strip corrosion test showed reduced corrosion rate of bio-oil after upgradation.

This technology is industrially feasible and has advantage in terms of reduced cost[13]. Consequently, upgrading of bio-oil before utilization is desirable to obtain a liquid product that can be used in a wider variety of applications. The current hurnal methods include catalytic hydrogenation, catalytic cracking and catalytic esterification[68]. Ekstraks presence of a large amount of organic acids formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid is the main reason for the strong acidity, high corrosiveness and poor stability of bio-oil[].

In this work, we selected and NKC-9 type ion exchange jurnxl as catalysts[12,13] and tried to convert the organic acids in bio-oil into their corresponding neutral esters so as to eksgraksi the quality of bio-oil.

Amberlyst 15 were commercially available and were pretreated before being used as esterification catalysts. The aluminum strips used in corrosion test and other reagents were of AR grade. Five grams of resin catalyst was used. The reaction solution 0. Using the titration method, the acetic acid conversion was calculated by the following equation: Published by Elsevier Limited. WANG Jin-jiang et al.

Besides, model mixture, which comprised of several typical components as those in bio-oil, was prepared and used to explore the esterification activity of resin catalysts in a complex system similar to bio-oil.

The ratio of components in model mixture was as follows[6,9]: Model mixture 30 mL and methanol 60 mL were added into the three-neck flask. The experiments were carried out at 50 C for 5 h, and 5 g catalyst was used.

The pH value and acid number of model mixture were measured before and after the reaction. Bio-oil and its model mixture are usually a black or dark brown liquid, and therefore, it is difficult to choose a suitable visual indicator to signal the temupawak point of the titration. Method of potentiometric titration identifies the end point by monitoring the greatest slope in the titration curve at the equivalence point, which is especially suitable for the titration of turbid or colored solutions.


Metrohm Titrando was used for the determination of acid numbers of bio-oil and its model mixture by potentiometric titration method. The aluminum strips were machined into 3 cm 3. At specific intervals, wkstraksi strips were taken out and weighed and the weight loss was calculated.

Density was measured by Capillary-stoppered pyknometer method. At 70 C, conversion of acetic acid reached The NKC-9 resin showed slightly lower activity than resin, and acetic acid conversion rose with time remarkably and reached Conversion of acetic acid on resin at 50 C could reach Both and NKC-9 resins exhibited high activities for esterification of acetic acid.

Kestraksi esterification of bio-oil was conducted in a batch reactor.

Jurnal Ekstraksi

Bio-oil and methanol were mixed in a volume ratio of 1: A fixed bed reactor was also used for continuous esterification of bio-oil. Bio-oil and double volumes of methanol were mixed and pumped to the fixed bed 10 mmwhich was kept at 50 C for 1 h.

Temulwwak schematic diagram of the fixed bed is shown in Fig. Thirty milliliter crude, diluted or upgraded bio-oil was placed in small sealed vials and heated at 80 C.

Kinematic viscosity was measured at specific intervals. Fixed ekstraki reactor; 6: Before reaction, acid number of model mixture decreased from After esterificaiton on and NKC-9 resins, the acid numbers of model mixture were lowered by This implies the high activity of resin catalyst for conversion of acetic acid even in the complex system similar to bio-oil. However, the change ekstdaksi pH values was irregular and became ambiguous.


After upgrading bio-oil on resin and NKC-9 resin, acid numbers were greatly lowered by Organic acids in bio-oil were also proven to be esterified according to the results of Xiong[18] and Wang[19] in which also bio-oils were upgraded on the same resin catalysts.

Besides, the H2O contents increased from 8.

This is logical as esterification would produce water. The densities of bio-oil were lowered to 0. Compared to the caloric values of crude bio-oil, the caloric values of upgraded bio-oil increased by However, the pH value of bio-oil was both lowered after esterification on and NKC-9 resins, which showed inconformity with the change of acid numbers.

The conversion of acetic acid reached Several studies on upgrading bio-oil by catalytic esterification also found that pH value was lowered while the carboxylic acids in bio-oil were converted to their corresponding neutral esters[8,18,19]. Bio-oil is not a highly dispersed system, and according to Garcia-Perez [21], bio-oil is a mixture of multiphase structure.

We consider that the phase structure of bio-oil was changed, and the undissolved strong acids in bio-oil were dissolved after upgrading, which would lead to the decrease of pH value. The complexity of bio-oil will lead to uncertainties of exact pH value during the measurements.


The pH value may not reflect the true content of acids in bio-oil. Comparatively, acid number determination by acidbase titration can accurately quantify the total amount of acids in bio-oil and is more suitable for evaluating the esterification of bio-oil. Before reaction, the acid number of bio-oil was lowered from The acid number of bio-oil decreased by The viscosity of bio-oil and methanol mixture before reaction was steady, and the viscosity increased from 1.

Dilution with small amounts of alcohol is known to stabilize bio-oil, and because of the dilution effect by double volumes of methanol, the stability did not change significantly after esterification.

Heating the crude bio-oil to 80 C totally altered its properties and the viscosity significantly increased with time. A serious phase separation was observed when bio-oil was heated, and the viscosity increased from The upgraded bio-oil didBased on the weight loss, as shown in Fig.

We confirmed that the property of uniform surface corrosion of bio-oil was improved after upgrading; however, several stains on the surface of aluminum strip were also observed after the corrosion of upgraded bio-oil. Whether pitting corrosion occurred on aluminum by upgraded bio-oil needs further study.

Jurnal Ekstraksi

We also found that the jurna, of weight loss of upgraded bio-oil is slightly faster than that of diluted bio-oil, which was not reacted. This may be due to an increase in moisture content after esterification. From the point of temulawk equilibrium, esterification reaction will occur at room temperature with enough time even without catalysts.

The catalytic process can accelerate the potential esterification and water production, and the esterified bio-oil can be treated further. After 35 days storage of aluminum strip in crude bio-oil, bio-oil diluted with methanol but not reacted, and upgraded bio-oil at room temperature, its weight loss was 1.

Upgraded bio-oil was less corrosive to aluminum than crude bio-oil and mixture of bio-oil and methanol before esterification. Bio-oil diluted ekstrakksi methanol before reaction;: Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology,34 6: Ind Eng Chem Res,42 Energy Fuels,20 3: Fast pyrolysis of forestry residue.

Physicochemical composition of product liquid. Energy Fuels,17 2: Progress of ion exchange resins in organic catalysis. Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress,26 3: Synthesis of ethyl acetate using cation exchange resin as catalyst.

Fine Chemical Intermediates,36 3: Norms and standards for fast pyrolysis liquids 1. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis,73 2: Analysis on chemical and physical properties of bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis,82 2: Corrosion properties of bio-oil and its emulsions with diesel. Chin Sci Bull,53 Corrosion of metals by bio-oil obtained by vacuum pyrolysis of softwood bark residues.

An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy study. Energy Fuels,18 5: Experimental research on bio-oil catalytic esterification using cation exchange resins.