LUDWIG GUMPLOWICZ’. I. KOCHANOWSKI. Member of the International Institute of Sociology, Paris. WARSAW, August Deeply moved, still suffering from. (–)A Polish sociologist, Social Darwinist, and materialist, who argued that social evolution represented a struggle for economic resources resulting in. Ludwig Gumplowicz (–), of PolishJewish parentage, was professor of public law at the University of Graz, Austria, from until his death. He is best.
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Ludwig Gumplowicz —of PolishJewish parentage, was professor of public law at the University gumplowixz Graz, Austria, from until his death. He is best known for his pioneer work in establishing sociology as a social science. His contributions to political science and jurisprudence were also important, but they consisted gu,plowicz of applications of his sociological generalizations to government and law.
A clear and vigorous writer, he was much given to controversy in all three fields. The sociological system of Gumplowicz was based on a number of fundamental dogmas or principles: Applying these principles to the evolution of society and states, Gumplowicz held that the earliest forms of group life were small, vumplowicz, ethnic or blood-kin hordes. These groups were unified by consanguinity and common, rudimentary economic interests; their members lived in sexual promiscuity and relative equality of social position.
Out of this earliest form of group life arose, in succession, the matriarchate and the patriarchate, the first types of organized control. Since the appearance of the matriarchate and the patriarchate, social and political evolution has been a never-ending process of external conflict between groups, in the form of wars, and of internal conflict of interests within luddig.
The motive in ludwug conquests has been gumplowiz desire for the material gain that may be obtained by exploiting the labor of the conquered. Material interests, therefore, have furnished the dynamic impulse in social evolution. When the process of conquest and subjugation becomes ludwwig developed, the principle of amalgamation supplements syngenism in producing unity in the state, which, as the highest form of social grouping, is the culmination of a long process of conquest bumplowicz of many adjustments subsequent to conquest.
Gumplowicz believed that there is no such thing as indefinite social progress; the historic process is the record of the rise and fall of states and follows an inevitable cyclical course of growth and decline. In the initial stage of conquest, there were only two social classes, the conquerors and thesubjugated. Foreign merchants who moved in produced a third class—the middle class or bourgeoisie. With the development of social and political institutions, the activities of the primary classes of rulers, merchants, and exploited masses created a need for secondary or derived classes, such as priests, professional men, and artisans.
These social classes were based on a division of labor which was created and maintained by coercion.
Ludwg rise of social classes produced a complex and unending struggle among them to control the policy of the state in order to promote their various special interests. These interests were best advanced through participation in legislation, and social classes found that political parties were the most effective agencies for controlling the legislative process. Whatever form the struggle of classes within the state has taken, it has provided the dynamic core of history pp.
Paralleling political and economic developments there were various processes of assimilation, such as the adoption of the language, religion, and manners and customs of the conquerors, which tended to produce cultural unity.
Finally, through intermarriage, an ethnic unity was achieved.
The tendency throughout history has been for such a folk-state or nation to seek to conquer a neighboring nation, and when it is successful the whole process of subjugation, assimilation, and amalgamation is repeated. He was indebted to Darwin for the general idea of a struggle for existence, but he was also indebted to others: His conception of the primordial and ceaseless conflict of races and social groups came from the writings of Count Joseph Ljdwig de Gobineau and from his own life long contact with the intense struggles among races and groups in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
He had participated kudwig the Polish revolt of and had absorbed much of the socialist and anar chist literature of the first half of the nineteenth century: The outstanding contribution of Gumplowicz to sociology was his naturalistic and secular approach to society and social evolution and his conception of social evolution as a process of conflict. He assembled and developed in a well-integrated and systematic fashion the previously scattered suggestions relative to the social conditioning of political phenomena: His argument has won general acceptance, although some sociologists, notably Jacques Novicow, have charged that he neglected the role of pacific and cooperative factors in the origins of states.
He even suggested that the practical value of sociology may be to save mankind from wasting time and energy on futile schemes of Utopian reform.
There is some evidence, however, that Lester Ward was able to convince Gumplowicz to a certain extent that the social sciences may enable man to plan a better future Gumplowicz spent most of his professional life as a professor of law.
His legal theories were a direct outgrowth of his sociological doctrines, and he is generally regarded as one of the founders of the sociological school of jurisprudence. He saw laws as invariably growing out of the conflict of classes and interests within the state, as social products rather than divine revelations, or as wise and rational human creations, or as derived in some mysterious manner from nature.
He believed that there are no natural laws, except in the sense that laws are a result of the nature of man and of the social processes. This precludes the gumplowic of classifying laws as good or bad: Justice does not determine political and legal rights; rather, these rights are the product of the conflict of interests among social classes:.
Rights are not ludwi upon justice. On the contrary, justice is created only by the actual rights as they exist in the state. For discussion of the subsequent development of his ideas, see Conflict ; Constitutional lawarticle on Civil rights ; Lawarticle on the legal system and the biographies of Bentley ; Duguit ; Durkheim ; Laski ; Oppen heimer ; Ratzenhofer ; Small.
Geschichte der Staatsthcorien, Grundriss der Soziologie, Der Rassenkampf, Soziologische EssaysSoziologie und Politik, Edited with an introduction and notes by Irving L. American Journal ludwit Sociology Jour nal of Race Development 9: Posner, Stanislaw Ludwik Gumplowicz Zarys zycia i pracy. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Retrieved December 31, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
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The Polish-Austrian sociologist and political theorist Ludwig Gumplowicz is considered one of the more significant “conflict” theorists in sociology. His early career was as gumplwicz journalist, but in he began his university career as a teacher of law at Graz, where he remained until shortly before his death. Gumplowicz viewed sociology as the study of groups in conflict. Sociology was dominated by the social Darwinists, who crudely applied Charles Darwin’s theories of “the survival of the fittest” and “the struggle for existence” to the development of human societies.
Gumplowicz and others refined the application of these theories to society into a sociological system known as conflict theory.
The theory, now considered to be somewhat dated, exercised an extraordinary influence in political, social, and legal studies, an influence which continues to this day.
Gumplowicz’s theories played a major role in reorienting American political science away from the study of public law and the structure of government and toward the process of politics by focusing ludig interest groups. Gumplowicz minimized the importance of the autonomous individual, viewing him in a Marxist deterministic manner. The individual never ludwkg as individual but only as a member of a group, the influence of which determines his behavior. Thus social change and the development of history are entirely the products of social groups, their conflicts being analogous to the biological struggle for existence, with the result being growth.
Human history, however, does not develop linearly but—as in all nature— cyclically, from birth, to growth, to maturation, to decline, to death, and then begins a new cycle. According to Gumplowicz, the state originates in the conflict among races, which in turn are simply primitive groups.
At the outset of his Outlines of Sociology he describes the foundation gumplowiczz the state: Subjection of some to the others is the source of political organization, is the condition essential to social growth. Gumplowicz argued that there are no natural rights antecedent to the state, all rights being of the civil type only, that is, existing to the extent that they happen to be guaranteed by a particular state.
The history of every nation is one of class conflict in which the fittest necessarily survive and dominate the less fit. Each group strives to become the controlling group within the state, the only motive being self-interest. The same principles are applied to the behavior of states as to groups. Their most natural tendency is incessant increase of power, and territorial expansion is the expression of the very being of a state and is so inevitable that rulers and gumplowocz are powerless to resist it.
Gumplowicz also gave currency to the terms “syngenism” and “ethnocentrism. Ironically, since Ludeig was Jewish, his work Race Struggle is regarded by some scholars as having been an important influence on the development of Nazi theories. Early in Gumplowicz left the University of Graz, and shortly thereafter he and his wife committed suicide. Gumplowicz’s influence on racism is discussed in William M.
McGovern, From Luther to Hitler His contributions to the development of sociology are assessed in Lester F.
Its Origins and Development A recent evaluation of Gumplowicz’s significance is in the second English-language edition of his Outlines of Sociologyedited and with an introduction and notes by Irving Horowitz.
Gumplowicz, Ludwig — A Polish sociologist, Social Darwinistgjmplowicz materialistwho argued that social evolution represented a struggle for economic resources resulting in the survival of the fittest. Because of ethnocentricismthis struggle gumploicz characterized by conflict between in an evolutionary sequence racial groups, nation-states, and classes.
Little of his work has been translated into English the notable exception being his Grundriss der Soziologieand his writing is popularly discredited by its authoritarian and racist overtones, although theorists of global processes have recognized his contribution in drawing attention to large-scale social conflicts such as conquests and wars.
See also military and militarism. From to he was a professor at Graz. He held that social development rose out of conflict, first among gumplowwicz, then among states, then among other social groups. His theories are expressed chiefly in Der Rassenkampf [race conflict] and Grundriss der Soziologietr. The Outlines of Sociology, An ardent Polish patriot, he participated in the Polish gjmplowicz against Russia inand as a consequence of the failure both of the rebellion and of subsequent nationalistic activities Gumplowicz had to leave Cracow and availed himself of an opportunity to luxwig a Privatdozent in political science at the University of Graz.
In he was appointed adjunct professor in political scienceand 11 years later, inhe received his full professorship. Gumplowicz was baptized, but retained a lively interest in Jewish affairs. Gumplowicz was a proponent of Jewish assimilation. He thought that the Jews, having no territorial basis and no common language, were lacking the prerequisite of a nationality.
In a letter directed to Theodor Herzl and dated Dec. Academically, Gumplowicz remained isolated at a provincial university, but he had brilliant students, such as Franco Savorgnan and Franz Oppenheimer, and found vumplowicz recognized by early American sociologists.
Gumplowicz was one of the first to achieve full emancipation for sociology from the nonsocial sciences by insisting that social phenomena and evolution are distinctive and can be understood only by reference to social causes. That which is unique about social phenomena arises ludwi human groups in interaction rather than from the behavior of individuals abstracted from the influence of association and dissociation. According to Gumplowicz, social and cultural evolution is a product of the struggle between social groups.
This struggle replaces individual struggle in his theory of evolution.