ANCIENT ASTROLOGY AS A COMMON ROOT FOR SCIENCE AND PSEUDO-SCIEN
Astronomy and Astrology: Finding a Relationship to the Cosmos before purchasing it in order to gage whether or not it would be worth my time, and all praised. In the Middle Ages, astronomia―one of the seven liberal arts―was as much about astrology as it was astronomy. Indeed, the two disciplines did not part. From the Publisher: In the Middle Ages, Astronomia-one of the Seven Liberal Arts -was as much about astrology as astronomy. In fact the two disciplines only.
The Clockwork armillary sphere with its countless functions is a complex mechanism that could display the day of the month, the hour, and even planetary motions. This branch of presicion engineering was cultivated before Galileo and reflects the great interest in celestial phenomena, not only related to navigation but also to the advenment of a new cosmology or understanding of the universe. This new knowledge lead to new questions about the religious establishment.
Library and Archives Canada, e The development of new astrological instruments served to popularize astronomic knowdlege. The pieces were built for demonstration, exhibition and education purposes.
An example is the Orrery. This is a mechanical device that illustrates or predicts the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the solar system in a heliocentric model.
A Benjamin Martin Orrery, used at Harvard Furthermore, celestial spheres were used in navigation and became popular for long expeditions overseas. We can find engraved copper spheres from the period following the discovery of the New World until the 18th century. Celestial Sphere, 18th century.
During the 17th century, artisans and scientists introduced a new tool for studying the heavens: Its development and improvement during the following centuries transformed this object into the most popular and essential instrument to explore the sky. The invention of the telescope was required before astronomy was able to develop into a modern science.
Thanks to the telescope, we learned what the objects in space looked like. Hubble Space Telescope Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs can still play an active role. And they continue to make scientific contributions to the field. Observing eclipses, for example, was of great importance.
In the Assyrian Era, eclipses could already be forecasted. Numerous tablets of Assyrian astrologers' reports to the king, containing a thorough description of the observation and planets seen during the eclipse, and how the obscuration shifted, have been preserved to the present day.
Different areas of the moon were associated with geographical locations, which meant that it may have been possible to attribute the misfortune predicted by the eclipse to the neighbouring country instead. On the 14th day the moon will make an eclipse. It predicts evil for Elam and the Westland, good for the king my lord.
Let the king my lord be happy. In Adar XII on the 14th day the moon will make an eclipse. If the moon makes an eclipse in Adar XII on the 14th day in the evening watch, it gives its decision for the king of the world, for Ur and the Westland. Next to the weather, cloudlessness and wind, it was also important to consider the alignment and relative movement of planets during the eclipse: If Jupiter stands inside the moon, in this year the king will die; variant: The conviction that earthly occurrences were the aftermath of celestial phenomena was widespread.
Primitive zodiacal astrology developed in the state of Chaldaea or Late Babylonia that emerged after the destruction of Assyria by the Babylonians in alliance with the Medes. The impact of Zurvanism, the predecessor of contemporary Iranian religions, the cult of Mitra, and Zoroastrism on Babylonia was immense. According to Zurvanism everything that happens in the world is predestined by eternal time Time God Zurvan, the ancestral being of everything in the world.
Stars function as indicators of predetermination.
History of astronomical instruments – Cosmic-Watch | Cosmic-Watch
This doctrine has also been called astral fatalism van der Waerden Even Greek philosophy contains traces of this doctrine. Pythagoras has argued that everything that has ever happened will recur at a predetermined time in the future and is not utterly new. According to the Stoic philosophy the world will be destroyed by fire when all planets have returned to their original position and a new world will emerge. In his book Anthropologia Nemesios Emesenos, the clerical figure and philosopher in the Early Byzantine Empire, claimed that as long as stars follow their usual course, everything will recur exactly as it happened even in the smallest detail.
Heraclitus believed that the great year lasted for 18, years, whereas the Stoics, as Simplikios has written, considered it times longer. He who has seen present things has seen all, both everything which has taken place from all eternity and everything which will be for time without end; for all things are of one kin and of one form Marcus Aurelius.
VI, 37 It is extremely important to bear in mind that according to this idea the stars are not the cause of events, their movement is something like the movement of the hands of a clock, which indicate the time when a given event will occur, but do not cause the event. The relation between cause and effect is universal and irrevocable. Astrologers can foretell future events from the signs. The list of 18 such constellations is proof that actual constellations, not zodiac signs, were meant.
Later, when zodiac astrology came into use, the ecliptic was divided into sections of equal length that included the constellation of the same name, or at least part of it.
Foretelling was based on the movement of the Moon and the planets relative to zodiac signs. For example the size of the crop harvest was predicted by the Moon's position relative to a zodiac sign on the day of Sirius's heliacal rise. Since the Sun moves counter-clockwise relative to the starts, a star on the day of its heliacal rise is visible for a moment just before dawn.
The heliacal rise of Sirius was used in Egypt to predict the beginning of the Nile's flooding. This example seems to support the opinion that dividing the ecliptic into sections of equal length may be a result of Egyptian influence.
MA Cultural Astronomy and Astrology
Assyria's conquest of Egypt brought these big cultures into direct contact. There were also strong ties between Chaldea and Egypt, although relations were not always friendly.
In Egypt, however, the ecliptic was divided into 36 segments, each holding the Sun for 10 days thus the later name dekaan. Zodiacal astrology demanded much more of astronomy than predicting astrology had.
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This was the beginning of diligent Moon-watching and elaboration of the cycles of the planets. Horoscopic astrology appeared in Mesopotamia during the Persian occupation. At that time, mazdaism was the predominant religion in Iran. Since this is a science textbook, I will focus on the scientific type of explanations. Whether or not you, the reader, chooses to believe what is discussed here is up to you.
However, I want you to understand the physical principles discussed here and be able to apply them to various situations. The scientific method for finding scientific truth is discussed in more depth in the scientific method chapter.
Value of Astronomy in the Scientific Endeavor Even though astronomers cannot do controlled experiments and are confined to observing the universe from locations near the Earth, the universe gives us a vast number of different phenomena to observe. Many of these things cannot be reproduced in Earth laboratories. There are gas clouds in such a rarefied state that they give off radiation not seen on Earth. Some objects are so dense that their gravitational fields bend light so much that it is prevented from leaving the object!
Many things that are unlikely or impossible on Earth are routinely observed in the cosmos. Many of the scientific theories in other fields make predictions of what would happen under very extreme circumstances. Sometimes those extreme circumstances are the only situations distinguishing two or more contradictory theories.
Astronomy allows those theories to be tested. Very subtle and easily missed but crucial processes may be missed by observers focussing on the Earth, but the astronomer can see those processes magnified to easily noticeable levels in some other celestial object.
In addition you will see later that the light coming from far-away objects in all parts of the universe tells us about the laws of physics the rules of nature governing how physical things interact with each other there.
Astronomers find that the laws of physics discovered here on the Earth are the same throughout the cosmos. The fact that nature makes nearly an infinite variety of things from the same types of material we have here on the Earth and has those things interact with each other in so many different ways using the same rules we see followed here on the Earth is awe-inspiring.
- Early Astronomers: Ptolemy, Aristotle, Copernicus, and Galileo
- Astronomy and Astrology: Finding a Relationship to the Cosmos
- Astronomy and Astrology
Now back to the long term evolution side of the coin. We actually have a time machine! Wells variety or G. It takes time for radiation from a celestial object to reach the Earth. Therefore, when you examine an object at a large distance from us, you see it as it was.
The farther away the object is, the longer it took the radiation to reach the Earth, and the further back in time you observe it. The farthest object you can see without a telescope is the Andromeda galaxy about 2. Recall that a light year is how far light travels in one year about 9. Therefore, the Andromeda galaxy is almost 3 million light years away from us. The speed of light is the key in the relationship between space and time, a fact used by Albert Einstein in developing his Relativity theories that are described in other chapters of these notes.
To study the evolution of long-lived objects like stars with lifetimes of millions to billions of years or galaxies, astronomers observe the objects of interest at different distances from the Earth so they are seen at different epochs. Therefore, the objects are seen at various different ages or evolutionary stages. Since light from remote objects can take millions to billions of years to reach the Earth, astronomers find out about the laws of physics at different times.
What they find is that the universe has used the same laws of physics throughout its billion year lifetime and presumably will continue using those same rules.Books of Astronomy and Astrology Finding a Relationship to the Cosmos
I find that even many of those who have a four-year college degree including some college professors! Astronomy is a science, astrology is NOT. Today the two subjects are very different from one another, but hundreds of years ago astronomy and astrology were very similar to one another. History of Astrology Astrology began about years ago in the religions of Babylonia that believed the future of the nation and ruling class depended on the planets, Sun, and Moon and their motions.
Astrology spread through most of the western world when the Greeks became the world power and incorporated the Babylonian culture into their own. The application of astrology expanded to all social classesthe planets were believed to influence every person, not just the ruling class. Eventually, people came to believe that the position of the Sun, Moon, and planets at a person's birth was especially significant.
While most astrologers were developing ways to predict the future of human events by careful observations of the sky, early astronomers were developing ways to predict the motions of the planets, Sun, and Moon. Most early astronomers were motivated by the idea that if they could accurately predict the motions of the planets then they would be able to accurately predict the future of persons.
Astronomy broke away from astrology and became a science when astronomers became more interested in explaining what made the planets move the way they do and not in divining the future and interactions of individuals. The Horoscope The horoscope is a chart showing the positions of the planets, Sun, and Moon in the sky at a person's birth.
Their positions are located in the zodiaca narrow belt centered on the ecliptic. The ecliptic is the path the Sun takes through the stars throughout the year as opposed to the arc it travels from sunrise to sunset. The zodiac is divided into 12 signs named after the constellations through which the Sun, Moon, and planets passes. Right away you run into a problem with the zodiac constellationssome are large like Scorpio or Virgo and others are small like Aries and Cancer.