Describe the relationship between genes and a healthy organism

What is the link between genes and a healthy organism

describe the relationship between genes and a healthy organism

in the genes! Find out how genes work, what happens when there are problems with genes, and more. Those proteins help our bodies grow, work properly, and stay healthy. Parents with a changed CF gene can pass it on to their kids. They believe that a healthy organism is one that is in total health mentally, physically, it really refers to anything that interferes with the normal functions of the body. When the genes are intact, they give instructions and what is supposed to .. Force in Technological Devices · Characteristics of Unhealthy Relationships. Although most related parents will have healthy children, they are more likely . The closer the genetic relationship between the parents, the greater the risk of.

To explain these observations, we propose a model based on the fact that gene expression is a costly process notably protein synthesisso that there is an optimal expression level for each gene corresponding to a trade-off between the benefit and the cost of its expression. This model predicts that selective pressure on gene expression level or on the encoded protein should on average be stronger in highly expressed genes, providing a simple and common explanation for the general relationship observed between gene expression and the different facets of gene evolution.

Introduction Mutations can affect the phenotype either by modifying the sequences of proteins or by changing their pattern of expression. Whereas the evolutionary constraints acting on protein-coding sequences are relatively well characterized, those driving the evolution of gene expression have been much less studied.

Modifications in gene expression can result from mutations in regulatory elements or through changes in the number of gene copies in the genome i. The phenotypic impact of changes in gene dosage is clearly illustrated by the deleterious effects caused by chromosome aneuploidy [1].

The necessity of an X-chromosome inactivation mechanism to compensate for dosage imbalance between males and females in mammals [2] is another example of the importance of having the correct dosage of genes. Within populations, polymorphism in copy number of genes Copy Number Variations: CNVs significantly contributes to variations in transcript abundance [3].

Moreover, some CNVs were shown to be driven by positive selection for increased expression of the corresponding genes [4] — [6]highlighting the fact that gene dosage modifications can be targeted by selection. However, the evolutionary constraints that apply on gene dosage remain poorly understood.

Whole-genome duplications WGDs represent interesting cases to study the evolutionary constraints on gene dosage.

Genes and genetics explained

Immediately after a WGD event, all genes are present in two copies; these paralogs that result from WGD are termed ohnologs, in reference to the pioneering ideas of Susumu Ohno on the role of WGDs in genome evolution [7][8]. However progressive changes in gene dosage do occur: Different non-exclusive models have been proposed to explain the retention of gene duplicates after a genome duplication.

First, some ohnologs are retained because one or both copies evolved toward a different function, either by gain of a new function neo-functionalization [7][11] or through partition of ancestral functions [12][13 for review]. The over-retention of some functional categories suggests that WGDs might have played a role in some important evolutionary transitions by providing opportunities for functional innovations [14][15].

For example, the loss of ohnologs encoding subunits of protein complexes is counter-selected because it affects the stoichiometry of complexes [16] — [18].

In yeast, it has been noticed that genes that have been maintained in two copies after WGD tend to be highly expressed [19]. However, the interpretation of this observation remained unclear: The genome of Paramecium tetraurelia, which contains almost 40, protein-coding genes, provides a perfect configuration to investigate this issue.

describe the relationship between genes and a healthy organism

Indeed, 3 WGDs occurred during the evolution of the Paramecium lineage [17]. The genome contains about 12, pairs of ohnologs resulting from the most recent WGD, compared to less than in yeast [20]. Thus, the Paramecium genome allows the investigation of the fate of gene duplicates over different evolutionary scales. Improvements In non-endemic countries, the primary vaccination series of three doses should be extended by at least one booster dose.

Revaccination of adults every ten years may be required, especially for healthcare workers. Following injuries, when the tetanus prophylaxis is required, it can be combined with the diphtheria toxoid as well.

Polio Poliomyelitis is an infectious, viral disease which cripples and can be fatal, mostly affecting children under five. There is no cure, but safe and effective vaccines. The eradication strategy focusses on preventing infection by immunising children until transmission stops. The virus if spread through person-to-person contact.

The wild poliovirus enters through the mouth, multiplies in the intestines and is then shed into the environment through faeces.

As paralysis often does not occur until the patient carrying the virus has spread the infection to possibly thousands of others, WHO considers a single confirmed case of polio paralysis to be evidence of an epidemic.

describe the relationship between genes and a healthy organism

One in infections leads to irreversible paralysis, usually in the legs, due to the virus invading the central nervous system via the bloodstream. This is known as acute flaccid paralysis. Quadriplegia can result from more extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles of the thorax and abdomen.

  • HSC Biology – Search for Better Health notes – dot-point summary
  • What Is a Gene?

Severe cases of bulbar polio involve polio attacking the nerve cells of the brain stem, reducing breathing capacity, which can cause death. Before the vaccine was introduced, between 13 and 20 cases of polio, including about deaths and numerous cases of paralysis, were reported each year in the USA alone.

In Australia during the s, s and s, there were over cases of polio and over deaths occurred as a result. But suddenly, cases of poliomyelitis caused by the vaccine occurred and 11 people died. Investigations found that the disease-causing vaccine all came from one poorly made batch at one particular drug company, necessitating higher production standards. Over 4 million people were vaccinated by August to much success. Instead of a dead virus, Sabin used a weak strain.

It quickly became the vaccine of choice until the late s when it was replaced again by the Salk vaccine, because the live form caused the occasional case of polio. Today, polio is considered extremely rare and on the brink of eradication. Currently, polio cases at a historical low and the GPEI sees this as a rare opportunity to eradicate polio completely.

Epidemiological studies involve the collection and careful statistical analysis of large quantities of data.

describe the relationship between genes and a healthy organism

Such studies assist the causal identification of non-infectious diseases Identify and describe the main features of epidemiology using lung cancer as an example Epidemiology is the study of the prevalence of disease in the community and involves the collection and careful statistical analysis of large quantities of data from a large population to assist in identifying the cause of diseases.

Incidence of disease in a specific time period Number of people affected at any one time Number of cases as a proportion of the population Number of deaths as a proportion of the population Factors associated with the risk of the people in the study e.

Focus on large groups rather than individuals Relate to an identifiable target population Investigate populations where there is occurrence of the disease and where there is unequal exposure to proposed causes i.

Statistical correlation — significant statistical is established between a proposed cause and the disease Deaths due to lung cancer are significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, implying a high correlation between smoking and lung cancer.

A genetic mutation means that a gene contains a change — like a spelling mistake — that disrupts the gene message makes the gene faulty.

Genetic mutations can occur spontaneously. Sometimes a faulty gene is inherited, which means it is passed on from parent to child. Genetic changes that make a gene faulty can cause a wide range of conditions. Although most related parents will have healthy children, they are more likely than unrelated parents to have children with health problems or genetic disorders.

Parents pass on traits or distinguishing characteristics such as eye and hair colour to their children through their genes. Many health conditions and diseases are also genetic. Genes may also influence some behavioural characteristics, such as intelligence and natural talents. Genes are the blueprint for our bodies. Almost every cell in the human body contains a copy of this blueprint, mostly stored inside a special sac within the cell called the nucleus.

what is the relationship between genes and a healthy organism? | Yahoo Answers

Genes are part of chromosomes, which are long strands of a chemical substance called deoxyribonucleic acid DNA. Therefore, genes are made up of DNA. A DNA strand looks like a twisted ladder.

The genes are like a series of letters strung along each rung. These letters are used like an instruction book. The letter sequence of each gene contains information on building specific molecules such as proteins or hormones, both essential to the growth and maintenance of the human body.

describe the relationship between genes and a healthy organism

The working parts of the cell read the RNA to create the protein or hormone according to the instructions. Each gene codes the instruction for a single protein only, but one protein may have many different roles in the human body.

What is the relationship between genes and a healthy organism?

Also, one characteristic, such as eye colour, may be influenced by many genes. A variation can occur spontaneously no known cause or it can be inherited. Variations in the coding that make a gene not work properly faulty are called mutations and can directly or indirectly lead to a wide range of conditions.

Chromosomes and sperm and egg cells Humans have 46 paired chromosomes, with about 23, genes. The 46 chromosomes in the human cell are made up of 22 paired chromosomes. These are numbered from 1 to 22 according to size, with chromosome number 1 being the biggest. These numbered chromosomes are called autosomes. Cells in the body of a woman also contain two sex chromosomes called X chromosomes, in addition to the 44 autosomes. Body cells in men contain an X and a Y chromosome and 44 autosomes.

The 23, genes come in pairs. A sperm and an egg each contain one copy of every gene needed to make up a person one set of 23 chromosomes each. When the sperm fertilises the egg, two copies of each gene are present 46 chromosomesand so a new life can begin. The chromosomes that decide the sex of the baby are called sex chromosomes. An XX pairing means a girl, while an XY pairing means a boy. As well as determining sex, these chromosomes carry genes that control other body functions.

What is TRUE-BREEDING ORGANISM? What does TRUE-BREEDING ORGANISM mean?

There are many genes located on the X chromosome, but only a few on the Y chromosome. How we inherit characteristics We can inherit characteristics in many different ways.

describe the relationship between genes and a healthy organism