The Impact of HIV/AIDS on rural households and land issues in Southern and Eastern Africa
The complex relationship between poverty and HIV/AIDS is central to an understanding of the impact of the epidemic on rural livelihoods. The relationship is. The relationship between wealth and HIV infection is not direct, nor does it provided in the biannual UNAIDS Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, are. Download scientific diagram | Relationship between poverty and HIV/AIDS: a simplified view by UNAIDS and The World Bank (Adeyi et al.,). from.
In neighboring villages where men had not migrated less than one percent of the people were HIV positive. High HIV prevalence rates in areas of high out-migration have been documented in Mexico, Senegal, Ecuador, and in the south-east of Ghana.
Using data, a study of migrants in Kenya concluded: In rural areas, migrants [returning] from urban places are more likely than non-migrants to practice high-risk sex. Women in rural Tanzania a few weeks before Christmas told researchers that they lived in fear of their husbands coming home for Christmas since they thought they would be "bringing AIDS. In a related way, sites of large construction projects have been facilitated the spread of HIV.
Most of the workers are single men unmarried or without their spouses. With their wages, usually ready availability of liquor, and peer support, they induce women into either short or longer-term sexual relations. Workers at the Katse Dam construction site in Bokong, Lesotho, were found to have seroprevalence rates nearly seven times as high as people in nearby villages.
Tanzanian social scientist Gabriel Rugalema investigated the impact of AIDS in a village in the severely affected northwestern part of his country. He wrote of people's views of the epidemic: Rather, they saw it in the wider context of other crises predating it.
During and for a few years after World War II, the study area was struck by famine partly due to drought and partly due to rationing imposed by the British colonial government in Tanganyika. Most households had to dispose of their assets. This was a generalised hunger throughout Tanzania and the situation was made worse by the world oil price shock. A few years later there was olushengo lwa Amin Amin's warthat is, the war between Uganda and Tanzania. Although the village is about 72 kilometers from the border it not only received some of the displaced people from the border villages but it suffered the economic disruption wrought by the war.
Much of the period from has been characterized by poor national economic performance and consequently the decline of the coffee crop in the area. The economic downturn has continued with only brief hiatuses in some years. Numerous studies from countries in Africa and India document the sexual networking and the high HIV prevalence along the truck routes.
Both of these phenomena, as already emphasized, preceded structural adjustment programs but increased with the emphasis on an export-oriented growth. In many countries, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, nothing could have been more inappropriate than decreasing access to health services, given the already very high rates of untreated STDs and non-specific bacterial and vaginal infections, a now recognized leading factor in the spread of HIV infection.
Cutbacks in funding for public clinics reportedly also encouraged the reuse of disposable syringes, potentially contributing to HIV transmission. Here we place a sample of the linkages in the context of structural shocks. Decades of changes in economic activity and gender relations have placed women in increasingly difficult situations.
Although poorly documented, the range and depth of women's responsibilities have increased during the era of AIDS.
More active care-giving for sick and dying relatives has been added to the existing work load.
The Relationship Between Poverty and HIV/AIDS in Rural Thailand
Children girls first have been withdrawn from school, both to save on costs and to add to labor within the household. Whether women received remittances from men working away from home, received "allowances", or earned income themselves, AIDS made the availability of cash more problematic.
These costs are dis- investments to the family and survivors. Household food security is often affected in negative ways. In many parts of Africa, women lose all or most of the household assets after the death of a husband. Although the countries of the SADC region have much in common, their histories over the last twenty years have been very different Williams et al, Mozambique, with the lowest rate of infection, experienced sixteen years of devastating civil war from which it only emerged in They include poverty and economic marginalisation, poor nutrition, opportunistic infection, migration, sexual networking and patterns of sexual contact, armed conflict, and gender inequality.
Some of these will be discussed in more detail below. It should be emphasised that poor people infected with HIV are considerably more likely to become sick and die faster than the non-poor since they are likely to be malnourished, in poor health, and lacking in health attention and medications.
According to Balyamujura et al, poverty relates to the spread of HIV in three interrelated ways Deep-rooted structural poverty, arising from such things as gender imbalance, land ownership inequality, ethnic and geographical isolation, and lack of access to services.
Developmental poverty, created by unregulated socio-economic and demographic changes such as rapid population growth, environmental degradation, rural-urban migration, community dislocation, slums and marginal agriculture.
Poverty created by war, civil unrest, social disruption and refugees . High levels of rape and the breakdown of traditional sexual mores are associated with military destabilisation, refugee crisis and civil war Walker, By eroding the knowledge base of society and weakening production sectors, it destroys social capital.
By inhibiting public and private sector development and cutting across all sectors of society, it weakens national institutions. In the longer term, poor households may never recover even their initial low standard of living UNDP Jooma, cited in Ganyaza-Twalo and Seager cited that, the number of Africans living below the poverty line less than 1 US dollar per day has almost doubled Page 3 of 9 from million in to million people today.
Africa: HIV/AIDS and Poverty, 10/31/00
Therefore, HIV is high in Africa as compared to other continents of the world as well as poverty. Therefore, driving force behind migratory movements is poverty. UNDP in the same vein eludes that, poverty especially rural poverty, and the absence of access to sustainable livelihoods, are factors in labour mobility of the population including cross border migration and acceleration of the urbanization process, which contributes to create the conditions that sustain HIV transmission.
However such situations widens the web of sex networking, and in this way it will facilitate the early rapid spread of HIV. In this way poverty and HIV are synergistic and symmetrical in nature because in this essence, poverty create a migration platform which at the end expose people to HIV infection because of long time away from sexual partners. Therefore, this means HIV reduces household income generation because labour will be diverted to care for the sick person.
Moreover, households often expend their savings and lose their assets in order to purchase medical care for sick members. Assets may have to be sold when many households are facing the same need, and Page 4 of 9 such distress sales are often ill-timed and at a loss. This lead to chronic poverty and it directly affect livelihoods. Women are more vulnerable than men to HIV infection because of, biological, cultural, lack of education, inheritance among other factors.
In the same vein FAO alludes that, in many places HIV infection rates are three to five times higher among young women than young men. Scott et al argues that, gender inequality and poverty deprives women of their ability to fulfil their socially designated responsibilities, and therefore debases them, often forcing them into prostitution which exposes them to HIV infection.
Therefore, children raised in poor households face a large risk of achieving a low level of educational attainment and dropping out of school. Women in Tanzania also have severely limited access to education, employment, credit, and transportation as a result northern coastal women—married and unmarried, young and old— are increasingly turning to sex work, exposing them to a high risk of HIV infection Mwambete and Justin-Temu This increases poverty in women which expose them in risk behaviour such as commercial sex.
This is because if women are denied to access education they will not find employment in a formal to cope with their basic needs also they will be vulnerable to sexual exploitation by men because of poverty. ILO alludes that, poverty drives girls and women to exchange sex for food, and to resort to sex work for survival when they are excluded from formal sector employment and all other work options are too low-paying to cover their basic needs.
Therefore, commercial sex exposes women to infection and it is mostly necessitated by poverty.