# Relationship between pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium with water

### SATURATED STEAM - THE MARCET BOILER

show the relationship between pressure and temperature for saturated (wet) steam As the water temperature increases, so does the pressure in the boiler. ABSTRACT This experiment is to observe the relationship between the pressure and temperature of a saturated steam in equilibrium with water and also to. Marcet Boiler is used to investigate the relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium with water at all temperature levels .

If water had been filled in the boiler, skip step no 4 and 5. Then, close the valves, V1 and V2 at the level sight tube. Do not open the valve at the water inlet port as it was highly pressurized at a higher temperature. Experimental Procedure 1 Perform the general start-up procedures 2 If the boiler was initially filled with water, open the valves at the level sight tube V2 and V3 to check the water level.

Pour in additional distilled water if necessary. Then, close the valves. It is always important to ensure that the valves at the level sight tube are closed before turning on the heater as the level sight tube is not designed to withstand high pressure and temperature. This step was important to remove air from the boiler as the accuracy of the experimental results will be significantly affected when air is present.

Make the intervals of pressure data for 0. Start to record the steam temperature when the boiler is cooled down until the steam pressure reaches atmospheric pressure. Never open the valve when boiler is heated as pressurized steam can cause severe injury. Before the experiment is conducted, it is vital to remove the air from the boiler. This is because, air might affects the accuracy of the experimental results.

If the air is not removed, the correct equilibrium measurements between the steam and the boiling water will not be obtained. Due to the partial pressure of air, a lower water temperature will be required to raise the pressure. Besides, the air trapped in the boiler could lead to boiler failure. Measured slope against Calculated Slope 0. The percentage error for the experiment shows that the experimental yield was too much when the percentage error is negative. Differ when the percentage of error is positive, it shows that the experimental yield less than the theoretical yield.

This might happen due to the present of air in the boiler and the measurements reading errors that happen during the experiment. There are several sources of error of the experiment: Room temperature and pressure.

The stability of the material. The calculations of the data obtained. In order to make sure the accuracy of the data obtained, we must avoid the measurements reading errors. When the water in the boiler is heated up, the liquid molecules started to gain heat and move faster.

As they move around so fast that they can not even hold on to each other anymore, all the molecules started to flying apart and becoming gas. As the liquid absorbed enough heat energy, it changes from liquid form to vapour form. However, as the steam is not allowed to exit, the pressure in the boiler increases. Thus, causing the temperature rise.

The liquid water undergoes evaporation and becomes gas steam. The boilers in the industries include: Volume of one unit mass of steam is thousand times that of water. When water is converted to a steam in a closed vessel, the pressure will increase.

Heat the water from a cold condition to a boiling point or saturation temperature. Water boils at saturation temperature to produce steam. Heating steam from saturation temperature to higher temperature called superheating to increase the power plant output and efficiency.

The traditional design uses steam trays connected to a central boiler. Newer technology uses individual heating systems to create the steam on each set of steam trays. The newer technology offers significant advantages in both energy and water efficiency.

The boiler-based steamers utilize a boiler to inject through pipes steam into the heating compartment containing the food trays.

### CHE - Lab Report : Marcet Boiler () | Nurlina Syahiirah - bestwebdirectory.info

Steam that does not condense on the food product escapes as a mixture of steam and hot condensate through a drain at the bottom of the set of steam trays. The ash is removed dry or as heavy agglomerates that defluidize.

The temperatures are relatively low in dry ash gasifiers, so the fuel must be highly reactive; low-grade coals are particularly suitable. The agglomerating gasifiers have slightly higher temperatures, and are suitable for higher rank coals.

Fuel throughput is higher than for the fixed bed, but not as high as for the entrained flow gasifier. The conversion efficiency can be rather low due to elutriation of carbonaceous material. Recycle or subsequent combustion of solids can be used to increase conversion.

Vapor Pressure Basic Introduction, Normal Boiling Point, & Clausius Clapeyron Equation - Chemistry

Then the valves closed. The temperature controller was set to The vent valves V3 was opened and the heater was turn on.

Always make sure that the valves at the level sight tube are closed before turning on the heater as the sight tube is not designed to withstand high pressure and temperature. The steam temperature rise observed as the water boils. The steam was allowed to come out from the valves V3 for about 30 seconds, and then the valve was closed. This step is important to remove air from the boiler as the accuracy of the experimental results will be significantly affected when air is present.

The steam temperature and pressure was recorded when the boiler is heated until the steam pressure reaches The intervals of pressure data for 0. Never open the valve when the boiler is heated as pressurized steam can cause severe injury.

Then, the heater was turn off and the steam temperature and pressure began to drop. The steam temperature was recorded when the boiler was cooled until the steam pressure reached the atmospheric pressure.

The boiler was allowed cooled down to room temperature. The steam temperatures was recorded at different pressure readings when the boiler is heated and cooled.

This is becauseair might affects the accuracy of the experimental results. If the air is not removed, the correct equilibrium measurements between the steam and the boiling water will not be obtained. Due to the partial pressure of aira lower water temperature will be required to raise the pressure. Besides, the air trapped in the boiler could lead to boiler failure. The percentage error for the experiment shows that the experimental yield was too much when the percentage error is negative.

Differ when the percentage of error is positive, it shows that the experimental yield less than the theoretical yield. This might happen due to the present of air in the boiler and the measurements reading errors that happen during the experiment. There are several sources of error of the experiment: In order to make sure the accuracy of the data obtained, we must avoid the measurements reading errors.

When the water in the boiler is heated up, the liquid molecules started to gain heat and move faster. As they move around so fast that they can not even hold on to each other anymore, all the molecules started to flying apart and becoming gas. As the liquid absorbed enough heat energy, it changes from liquid form to vapour form.

However, as the steam is not allowed to exit, the pressure in the boiler increases. Thus, causing the temperature rise. The liquid water undergoes evaporation and becomes gas steam. The application of boilers in industries includes: Volume of one unit mass of steam is thousand times that of water. When water is converted to a steam in a closed vessel, the pressure will increase. Heating the water from cold condition to boiling point or saturation temperature. Water boils at saturation temperature to produce steam.

Heating steam from saturation temperature to higher temperature called superheating to increase the power plant output and efficiency.

The traditional design uses steam trays connected to a central boiler. Newer technology uses individual heating systems to create the steam on each set of steam trays. The newer technology offers significant advantages in both energy and water efficiency. The boiler-based steamers utilize a boiler to inject through pipes steam into the heating compartment containing the food trays.

Steam that does not condense on the food product escapes as a mixture of steam and hot condensate through a drain at the bottom of the set of steam trays. Not only is water wasted in the rejected steam, but also a substantial amount of additional water is required to condense this steam and cool the condensate water to an acceptable temperature before it enters the sewer system 3 Fluidized Bed Reactor The fuel is fluidized in oxygen and steam or air.

The ash is removed dry or as heavy agglomerates that defluidize. The temperatures are relatively low in dry ash gasifiers, so the fuel must be highly reactive; low-grade coals are particularly suitable.

## SATURATED STEAM - THE MARCET BOILER

The agglomerating gasifiers have slightly higher temperatures, and are suitable for higher rank coals. Fuel throughput is higher than for the fixed bed, but not as high as for the entrained flow gasifier. The conversion efficiency can be rather low due to elutriation of carbonaceous material. Recycle or subsequent combustion of solids can be used to increase conversion. Fluidized bed gasifiers are most useful for fuels that form highly corrosive ash that would damage the walls of slagging gasifiers.

Biomass fuels generally contain high levels of corrosive ash. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In the cycle, water is heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure.

When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done. The reduced-pressure steam is then condensed and pumped back into the boiler.

As we did in the laboratory, we started heating water with constant pressure until it reached boiling point. Then, closing the valve which created a constant volume system. Forcing the pressure to increase as the temperature rises. And thus studying the direct relation between pressure and temperature for water at that point.