Mary, Queen of Scots - Wikipedia
A biography of Mary, Queen Of Scots (), Queen of Scotland, life and times The relationship between Mary and Elizabeth was always very difficult. Elizabeth I's relationship with Mary, Queen of Scots dominated English and Scottish politics for 20 years. Now, as a new film Mary Queen of. Even though they never met, the relationship between Elizabeth and Mary was complicated, to say the least. Books have been written on that topic. I will first.
This awareness of her pre-eminence was her companion through life, something taken for granted, the responsibilities to which she did not apply much profound thought nor, in the end, much value. His son, the sickly, despondent Francis, also adored his future wife and hung onto her every word.
Her bills show that she had a lavish wardrobe the young Elizabeth could only have dreamed of, as well as dancing, horseback riding and singing lessons. The teenage Elizabeth, long restored to the title of Princess, should have enjoyed a relatively benign fate. However, the arrangement would end in disaster. Seymour was sexually inappropriate with Elizabeth, with his wife sometimes joining in.
Elizabeth was sent away in disgrace, and her relationship with Seymour continued to haunt her. Inthe recently widowed Seymour was arrested for treasonous behavior; many believed he intended to marry Elizabeth and claim the throne in her name. To prevent this, Elizabeth was quarantined, and her beloved governess thrown in jail. Illegitimate children were not supposed to become kings or queens.
As well as this, Elizabeth was also a Protestant, but Mary a Catholic. For many years Catholics plotted to depose and kill Elizabeth in order to put Mary on her throne.
Mary herself did not recognize Elizabeth as the true Queen, and believed that she herself was the rightful Queen of England. Sometimes she even referred to herself as such.
The relationship between Mary and Elizabeth was always very difficult. As mutual queens and cousins they tried to keep up a pretense of friendship, but in reality they did not like each other very much. Perhaps because she was nine years older than Mary, Elizabeth always treated Mary with care, and was remarkably tolerant of her less than respectful cousin.
In films and novels, Elizabeth is often made out to have been very cruel to Mary, but this is not really true. There is a tendency for people to side with one Queen over the other, but it is better to treat them both as victims of the circumstances in which they found themselves.
No longer really welcome in France, Mary soon returned to Scotland. Possibly her greatest rival.
And since we already talked about Elizabeth's early life, let's talk a little bit about Mary Stuart's. Unlike Elizabeth, she was born a Queen. But her father died six days after her birth, and this causes a little trouble for baby Mary.
But the regency instead goes to her mother. Henry keeps at it and pursues what's called the rough wooing between his young son and Mary, hoping to make an alliance there. And this was the nicest, most luxurious court in Europe at the time, so Mary was in good hands, and she had a lot of French relatives there.
And again, unlike Elizabeth, she had a fairly happy childhood. It wasn't so fractured. A stable childhood, yeah. And Mary grows up to be a beautiful young lady. She's about 5'11", very tall. Which is remarkably tall for the Renaissance?
She's got red-gold hair and ambered eyes. Yeah, Mary is really the perfect Renaissance Princess when she finally marries Henry and Catherine's eldest son, Francis in And they like each other; they've been raised pretty much as siblings. But it's - the marriage probably isn't consummated. He's a few years younger than her and he's very sickly. And she thinks of him fondly but more in a brotherly sort of way than in a husbandly sort of way. Also inwhere the parallels start, Elizabeth I ascends to the throne.
So Mary, through the Tudor line, is next in line. But Henry had an order of succession that had muddled things up a bit. So to them Elizabeth is a Courtesan's bastard.
And inFrancis becomes King and Mary is his Queen Consort, and she begins putting on airs as far as this whole Queen of England things go, because she's safe, comfortable and powerful in France.
She has very powerful in-laws and she can do what she wants with impunity for a while. She certainly doesn't try to disabuse anybody of the idea that she's the rightful Queen of England. She and Francis actually start quartering their arms with that of England. So their proclaiming themselves rulers of France, Scotland and England, which is not something that's going to make Elizabeth very happy. And in a sense, of course, Mary, by Henry's order of succession, had been disinherited, or her line had been.
So this does make sense. But the trouble between the two Queens begins aroundwhen Mary refuses to sign the Treaty of Edinburgh. And the basic back story on that, there's been a long alliance between France and Scotland and it's getting less and less popular with the increasingly Protestant Scottish Lords, who are ready to see themselves freed of France.
And England backs them and they put together this Treaty of Edinburgh and obviously Mary, as Queen Consort of France, as well as Queen of Scotland, can't advocate breaking up this relationship.
She embodies this relationship. And she'd also have to then officially recognize Elizabeth as the Queen of England instead of herself.
It's tantamount to renouncing her own claim to the English throne.
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But further muddling matters at the time, her husband, Francis, dies of an ear infection. So she's 18, she's Dowager Queen in France, and it is time for Mary to return home to Scotland where, again, she hasn't been since she was a baby.
So things start to get more personal around now. She asks Elizabeth for safe conduct crossing the channel should she be forced to land on English soil.
Rival Queens: Mary Stuart and Elizabeth I
Elizabeth gives her a pretty snappy answer, which she actually sails before she can even receive it, but there would be no safe conduct and no welcome for the Queen of Scots and her cousin's realm until she had fulfilled her obligations by ratifying the Treaty, as she was honor bound to do. And Mary was pretty much just sorry she'd asked. She was offended by this response. And the international community also wasn't thrilled with Elizabeth's behavior.
They thought, she's hassling her young, beautiful, newly widowed cousin, and it simply wasn't appropriate. So Elizabeth comes back from that and tries to play nice and tells Mary that in fact they do have a sisterly friendship and after all, she didn't send her Navy after her. So it's very benevolent. The essential fact here is that Mary, as a teen Queen Consort over in France in one thing to Elizabeth, but Mary Queen of Scots back on the marriage market is another issue entirely. Right, because with Mary coming back to Scotland, Elizabeth now has a dynastic threat.
There's also the possibility of religious conflict because Mary had told the Pope she intended to restore the Catholic faith to Scotland and of course - Sarah Dowdy: Which had gone Protestant in the absence?
And Elizabeth is a staunch Protestant as well. And she was also extremely pretty, extremely powerful and a rival to all of Elizabeth's potential suitors. Elizabeth isn't the most eligible Queen in Europe any more.
And that really bugs her. But on the other hand, she sees Mary as a potential compatriot. She is her cousin after all, and she's a fellow female monarch, which is a very unique situation to be in. So Mary returns to Scotland in and her life as a potential Queen Consort in this fancy French court has made it very difficult for her to know how to run things.
She simply hasn't been raised that way and she doesn't have the tools she needs to be as powerful as she needs to be. She hasn't been raised and educated as a Prince, she's been educated as a Queen Consort, and that's a very different job.
And most troublesome of all are the Scottish nobles. The Scottish nobles are really difficult to deal with. They're more interested in fluffing up their own feathers kind of, and having private feuds. They're always feuding with each other. Then supporting the crown! And we have to consider too, there has been a regency while the Queen has been a minority, for 18 years.
So they haven't had a strong ruler for a generation. Mary does okay, at least at first with her illegitimate half-brother James, Earl of Moray. She comes to a sort of policy of religious tolerance. So at least in that respect there's no more fighting, or things are at somewhat of a peace, as far as religion goes. She can practice her Catholic religion but not pull a Mary Tudor, for instance, and have everyone burned at the stake.
And some people are happy to have her there, because again, they've had that regency for so long, they haven't had a Monarch around in a long time and she is beautiful and charming and pleasant to be around.
So, you know, maybe she'll be good for Scotland after all. And when she gets back to Scotland, she immediately starts working on Elizabeth to be named Elizabeth's heir, of which, as we said earlier, by birth she would be. But she's sort of downgraded her ambitions at this point. She's not trying to be named Queen of England. She's not calling herself Queen of England any more.
Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots: Cousins, Rivals, Queens - HISTORY
She just wants to be Elizabeth's heir. And Mary likes and dislikes Elizabeth as well. These aren't just complicated feelings on a Elizabeth's part, because on one hand Elizabeth has been helping the Protestants cause trouble for Mary and Scotland. But friendly relationships would only help.
They both realize it would benefit them to be friendly. But Elizabeth can't name Mary her heir. And this is what's at least somewhat at the crux of their relationship; because that's one of the reasons Elizabeth never wanted to get married at all.
She didn't want to name an heir in her lifetime, because it would be a threat to her, and there's a really good quote about that. Yeah, she says, think you that I could love my winding sheet when as examples show, Princes cannot even love their children that are to succeed them. And she goes on to say that she's been a witness to this desire to overthrow the current Prince with whoever the heir is.
Something she's seen in her sister's lifetime, when Mary Tudor was Queen, people were saying it's time for Elizabeth, Elizabeth should be Queen instead. So she knows what it's like. And so her fear and reluctance in that context make sense with her being friends with Mary.
But they are quite cordial at least for a time, and Mary is even a bit courtly. On seeing her cousin Elizabeth's portrait, she said she wished that one of them was a man so that their kingdoms could be united by marital alliances. Which we thought was really interesting; because of course that is how you played the game then.