# Relationship between required rate of return and cost capital

### Relationships between IRR, Cost of Capital and NPV

Relationships Between the Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Cost of Capital, and Net Present Value (NPV) The net present value (NPV) is the difference between the present value of the expected cash inflows and the present value of the. Cost of capital is what it costs to fund something. This is a weighted average of your funding streams. People estimate what it would be using. In economics and accounting, the cost of capital is the cost of a company's funds ( both debt and For an investment to be worthwhile, the expected return on capital has to be higher than the cost of capital. In other words, the cost of capital is the rate of return that capital could be expected to earn in the best alternative.

So more capital, capital, chasing, chasing fewer, fewer projects, or fewer things for it to produce, and in this world what is going to happen? Well, this, we'll just assume, that this continues to produce 10 dollars of income, so the income continues to be 10 dollars here, but people, let's say, you know, I were able to buy this for a dollars, but let's say the next person who has a dollars of capital, you know, to invest in capital, says, "Well I can't find something with "10 dollars of income, I can't get 10 dollars, "so hey, I'm willing to take nine percent, "so I'm going to bid this up, "I'm willing to buy this from you from dollars.

And so they're willing to do a five percent return for this asset. So they would bid this thing up, the more and more capital you have chasing, or the more and more money you have chasing this project, I guess you could say, this asset could just bid the value of this up. So the value could go to dollars, it's still producing the same income, and now, the return is five percent.

And so the reason to point this out is a increasing value of capital doesn't necessarily mean increasing returns, in fact normally in the market they move inversely with each other. When bonds have higher returns, than you have lower, then their prices are lower. When their prices are higher, for bond prices, that means that they have a lower, a lower return.

So when we look at something like this, when we look at something like this, this could be speaking to more and more capital accumulation chasing fewer and fewer potential projects or whatever it might be, especially because you have slowing economic growth.

But this would be a story of capital accumulation but with R slowing down, with the actual potential return slowing down, and probably starting to converge to G, to the rate of growth. Another similar idea, this is more capital chasing fewer projects, but you also have, might have, in reality, is that the reason why this is getting a 10 percent return is people find this scary. They've been burned on investments before, there have been wars, they don't want to put their money into some kind of factory, they want to stuff it into their, into their mattress.

## Cost of capital

But then over time maybe people become a little bit less risk averse, and they're willing to invest in the market, they're willing to invest in a project, or start a business, or whatever it might be. And so people become more risk tolerant. So maybe this is a world that is very risk averse, risk averse, so if you want me to invest in capital you have to give me a high return, but maybe the future is going to be more risk tolerant, risk tolerant, risk tolerant, and then in a more risk tolerant world you could also go to something like this.

So this is risk, in a more risk tolerant world you might say, "Hey, okay, well okay, "I don't have to stuff in my mattress "I'm getting zero percent, or in my bank account "I'm not getting a lot, and hey, I'm willing "to take my money and invest it more in capital.

Here, they needed a higher expected return because there was a lot of risk. They were scared of things. And actually, this is consistent with what we see happening right over here. Is that this, this period right over here, was a period, this is a period of major unrest.

### Cost of capital - Wikipedia

You have the two largest wars in global history right over here. You can imagine people becoming very, very, very risk averse. You can imagine people starting to stuff money in their, putting, putting their, trying to sell their assets, worried what might happen, So you're going to have less and less capital, more and more risk aversion driving, driving that reality.

But then as we go into the post war period, the memories of those wars go away, people become more risk tolerant, more capital comes into the system. Because of the [level of] productivity you have more and more capital accumulation. If we go back into, you know, even pre-industrial revolution times, if we go to medieval times and all the rest, you had a limited amount of capital, it was mainly land.

### Inverse relationship between capital price and returns (video) | Khan Academy

As you go into the industrial revolution, and especially the 20 and 21st centuries, land represents a smaller and smaller percentage of the value of total capital.

So the company will finance the project with two broad categories of finance: The new debt-holders and shareholders who have decided to invest in the company to fund this new machinery will expect a return on their investment: The idea is that some of the profit generated by this new project will be used to repay the debt and satisfy the new shareholders.

Suppose the bond had a lifetime of ten years and coupon payments were made yearly. This is the amount that compensates the investor for taking the risk of investing in the company since, if it happens that the project fails completely and the company goes bankrupt, there is a chance that the investor does not get their money back.

The cost of equity follows the same principle: Although the cost of equity is calculated differently since dividends, unlike interest payments, are not necessarily a fixed payment or a legal requirement Cost of debt[ edit ] When companies borrow funds from outside lenders, the interest paid on these funds is called the cost of debt.

The cost of debt is computed by taking the rate on a risk-free bond whose duration matches the term structure of the corporate debt, then adding a default premium. This default premium will rise as the amount of debt increases since, all other things being equal, the risk rises as the cost of debt rises. Since in most cases debt expense is a deductible expensethe cost of debt is computed on an after-tax basis to make it comparable with the cost of equity earnings are taxed as well.

Thus, for profitable firms, debt is discounted by the tax rate. The formula can be written as K.