Research on teacher-student relationships during the past two decades has . Features of this structure are the teacher's provision of more public versus . Noddings N. The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to education. Based on the findings from the Dallas Public Schools' Accountability System, the .. in student learning, and if we are to have competent and caring teachers. Showing students you care about them helps create a positive, supportive relationship and helps build an environment where learning can flourish. And you're.
Similarly, high school is when students decide if they plan to attend college or stop their education Alexander et al. Therefore, it is important to develop positive teacher-student relationships during this time. Empirical evidence does show that teacher-student relationships are very important for high school students Alexander et al. However, much of this research is dated. Due to the ever-changing nature of the American educational system and the increasingly diverse student body, more current studies are needed to look at the effects of teacher-student relationships for this changing population.
Conducting research on the relationship between high school students and teachers may be essential in improving the outcomes of low-income middle and high school students, and can potentially inform future interventions to help older students perform better both academically and socially.
From first grade forward: Early foundations of high school dropout. Sociology of Education, The teacher—student relationship as a developmental context for children with internalizing or externalizing behavior problems.
Chapter 1. The Power of an Effective Teacher and Why We Should Assess It
School Psychology Quarterly, 23 1 The exercise of control. Attachment and loss, Vol. The ecology of developmental processes. The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. High school dropout and completion rates in the United States: Social capital and dropping out of high school: The Teachers College Record, 4 Applications of social capital in educational literature: Review of Educational Research, 72 1 Educational Psychology, 30 1 Child Development, 72 2 School disengagement as a predictor of dropout, delinquency, and problem substance use during adolescence and early adulthood.
Journal of youth and adolescence, 41 2 Further support for the developmental significance of the quality of the teacher—student relationship. Journal of School Psychology, 39 4 Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes. Journal of personality and social psychology, 6 Teacher-child relationships and academic achievement: A multi-level propensity score model approach. Journal of School Psychology. Parent involvement, classroom emotional support, and student behaviors: The Elementary School Journal.
Child Development, Urban Education, 34 3 The role of caring in the teacher-student relationship for at-risk students. Sociological Inquiry, 71 2 Implementing a teacher—student relationship program in a high-poverty urban school: Effects on social, emotional, and academic adjustment and lessons learned. Journal of School Psychology, 43 2 Teacher-child relationship and behavior problem trajectories in elementary school. American Educational Research Journal, 48 1 Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings.
Undoubtedly, the children wondered what was wrong with them when, in reality, it was the quality of their instruction. A common yet misguided bit of folk wisdom has been that adversity, in the guise of an ineffective teacher, builds character and that a student can catch up the following year. The research indicates otherwise. Based on the findings from the Dallas Public Schools' Accountability System, the negative effects of a poor-performing teacher on student achievement persist through three years of high-performing teachers.
Conversely, if students have a low-performing teacher, they simply will not outgrow the negative effects of lost learning opportunities for years to come.
Thus, the negative effects of less effective teachers are being visited on students who probably need the most help. They [the researchers] show that there are large additional components in the longitudinal effects of teachers, that these effects are much larger than expected, and that the least effective teachers have a long-term influence on student achievement that is not fully remediated for up to three years later. Highly Qualified Versus Highly Effective Given the growing body of knowledge about the impact of effective teachers on children, it seems that educational policy is beginning to acknowledge the importance of classroom teachers in addition to curriculum standards and assessments.
While licensure or certification is a significant indicator of teacher quality, these factors alone are insufficient for teacher effectiveness. As discussed earlier, teacher effectiveness is characterized by a far more complex set of qualities than one's professional preparation. It includes dispositions and an array of planning, organizational, instructional, and assessment skills. Effective teachers are able to envision instructional goals for their students, then draw upon their knowledge and training to help students achieve success.
Promoting Teacher Effectiveness How do we support and cultivate effective teachers for all our schools and all our children? It is our belief that teachers want and need feedback, not only on the act of teaching, but also on the results of teaching.
Timely, informative feedback is vital to any improvement effort. For instance, consider the role of a track coach, fitness trainer, or weight counselor. These individuals provide guidance on how to perform better, but the evidence of their effectiveness as professionals manifests in tangible results: In fact, most authors identify the fundamental purposes of teacher evaluation as improving performance and documenting accountability. The improvement function generally is considered formative in nature and suggests the need for continuous professional growth and development.
Accountability is typically viewed as summative and relates to judging the effectiveness of educational services. However, primary reliance on formal observations in evaluation poses significant problems e.
If student learning is our ultimate goal, then it should be measured directly and not extrapolated from limited observations of classroom instruction.
A more balanced approach to teacher evaluation would involve an assessment of the act of teaching as well as the results of teaching. We don't suggest throwing out the use of classroom observation to foster teacher improvement; rather we advocate that teacher effectiveness be judged and demonstrated by both classroom instruction and the learning gains of students.
Developing Positive Teacher-Student Relations
Assessing Teacher Effectiveness Most educators would agree that they are responsible for student learning, but the profession as a whole has avoided evaluations based on measures of student learning, sometimes with good reason, given the unfair approaches that have been proposed.
The solution, however, is not to continue with traditional strategies simply because they are benign and comfortable, but rather to develop fair and reasonable means of assessing teacher success with students. A number of school systems and educational programs, to be discussed later in this book, have explored innovative ways of capturing valid and reliable data on student learning to inform the teacher evaluation process.
Developing fair approaches for the assessment of teacher effectiveness requires an unflinching look at both the legitimate concerns that have driven the avoidance of a results orientation in the past, and the promising possibilities that make it more attractive in today's climate of greater accountability for student learning outcomes.
Often, accountability efforts in schools are reduced to simplistic mandates for students to reach specified achievement goals at certain points in time. While gratifying as a bottom line, these expectations ignore the complex interdependencies of the learning enterprise. Responsibility by all stakeholders.
Accountability should be thought of as a collective responsibility for supporting learning by parents, principals, superintendents, school board members, and teachers, to say nothing of the students themselves. Holding teachers accountable for student achievement without recognition of the roles played by these other partners in the educational process is patently unfair and can amount to scapegoating.
Likewise, requiring students to attend summer school, or retaining them due to limited progress, avoids the collective nature of accountability if school systems have not provided the quality of instruction necessary for students to meet grade level expectations. Ultimately, learning is a phenomenon that occurs as a result of the interactions between a teacher and student. Teachers cannot be solely responsible for student learning because it is an internally controlled activity.
However, teachers are expected to optimize the conditions for learning. It is what they were hired to do and it is their professional obligation. Resources and student needs. Just as many actors affect the educational process, many variables affect the learning process within a classroom and are beyond the control of the individual teacher. These external variables include the level of support provided by the community and state, the availability of books for every child, the number of computers, sufficient instructional supplies, the support of curriculum specialists, and so forth.
Within the classroom, the number and type of students can have dramatic effects on the level of academic achievement experienced by the class.
Class size does make a difference, especially when a teacher is expected to work with a large number of at-risk students, whether they are disabled, limited in their English, or poor. Measurement of student learning. One additional concern about the use of student learning assessments in the teacher evaluation process is the way in which learning is assessed.
The traditional use of grades or standardized achievement scores is certainly suspect for a variety of reasons, including the Accuracy of grading procedures, Alignment of achievement tests with the curriculum, Diagnostic value of either approach for instructional improvement, and Single-point-in-time nature of these indicators.
The Power of an Effective Teacher and Why We Should Assess It
In the absence of meaningful pre-test data, grades or achievement test scores at the end of the year are hardly valid measures of a teacher's influence during a given year; indeed, they reflect the cumulative effects of what students have learned at home and school over preceding years. A much more accurate measure of what a student has learned would be reflected by an assessment that is curriculum-aligned and administered both at the beginning and end of the year.
When such learning gains are averaged over a whole class of students, we have a general indication of the magnitude of learning that took place with that group of children. A more in-depth discussion of possible assessment strategies will be offered in Chapter 2.
As has become evident, the interplay of factors affecting student learning is multifaceted and quite challenging. It is also difficult to reach consensus on how best to measure student learning. Given these complexities, many educators have avoided being too explicit or public about tracking student learning for the purpose of improving instruction or evaluating performance.
However, the current context of high-stakes accountability for students and schools found in most states, and which is being developed as a result of No Child Left Behind, provides an impetus and urgency for examining ways to assess teacher quality that are fair and realistic.
Today, superintendents, principals, teachers, and students are being held accountable for higher levels of student achievement. Teachers are being pressured to produce results, yet often lack the necessary information and support to make data-driven instructional decisions. The use of approaches such as those suggested in this book can offer feedback on how to improve instruction in a balanced and meaningful manner.
Possibilities Two primary purposes of teacher evaluation, as noted earlier, are professional growth and accountability.