THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV/AIDS AND POVERTY: THE CASE OF THREE Johannesburg: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit. This shows a relationship between HIV/AIDS and poverty in the region . Zimbabwe and South Africa are among the most economically developed in the region. This study sets out to establish and explain the empirical link between HIV/AIDS and poverty using data collected by the South African Demographic and.
This lead to chronic poverty and it directly affect livelihoods.
Women are more vulnerable than men to HIV infection because of, biological, cultural, lack of education, inheritance among other factors.
In the same vein FAO alludes that, in many places HIV infection rates are three to five times higher among young women than young men. Scott et al argues that, gender inequality and poverty deprives women of their ability to fulfil their socially designated responsibilities, and therefore debases them, often forcing them into prostitution which exposes them to HIV infection.
Therefore, children raised in poor households face a large risk of achieving a low level of educational attainment and dropping out of school. Women in Tanzania also have severely limited access to education, employment, credit, and transportation as a result northern coastal women—married and unmarried, young and old— are increasingly turning to sex work, exposing them to a high risk of HIV infection Mwambete and Justin-Temu This increases poverty in women which expose them in risk behaviour such as commercial sex.
This is because if women are denied to access education they will not find employment in a formal to cope with their basic needs also they will be vulnerable to sexual exploitation by men because of poverty.
ILO alludes that, poverty drives girls and women to exchange sex for food, and to resort to sex work for survival when they are excluded from formal sector employment and all other work options are too low-paying to cover their basic needs.
Africa: HIV/AIDS and Poverty, 10/31/00
Therefore, commercial sex exposes women to infection and it is mostly necessitated by poverty. In this essence a link between HIV and AIDS and poverty is when poverty forces people to enter into risk behaviour in order to gain living.
Therefore, poverty create reasons for women to practice commercial sex also because of poverty they can justify themselves for example women in Mkwaja village Tanzania in who were saying they accept that it is now the female burden to provide for their children, they said they risk dying from AIDS for the sake of our children Mwambete and Justin-Temu Therefore, a major impact on agriculture includes the depletion of human capital, diversion of resources from agriculture, and loss of farm and non-farm income, together with other forms of psychological impacts that affect productivity.
Given that malnutrition is a function of poverty, there is thus a good reason to assume that poverty helped hasten the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa Nattrass, cited in Ganyaza-Twalo and Seager Poor nutritional status is linked to vulnerability to progression from HIV infection to mortality. HIV is often associated with morbidity leading to labour shortage and loss of income. In the same line UNDP postulate that, people with chronic illness are often unable to work, therefore, leading to income reduction.
They also need care from other household members, thus limiting their productive activities and doubling the loss of income which results in poverty. Wyss et al cited in UNDP found that time lost due to illness by people living with HIV was approximately 16 days per month, while uninfected household members spent 8.
Also on top of income reduction HIV increases consumption of available resources through medical expenses thereby leading to chronic poverty. There are circumstances which they are not linked for Page 6 of 9 instance in least developed countries a large number and a substantial fraction of public sector personnel with a capital of skills, training, and education, and of experience in management and policy-making — notably in the fields of health and education — are being removed from the labour force as a result of AIDS at a time when the need for their services is greatest for development ILO Therefore this shows that, AIDS can affect people regardless of their economic status.
Therefore, not only poverty expose people to HIV infection by risk behaviours such as multiple sex partners associated with wealth.
HIV/AIDS and Poverty in South Africa - The Borgen Project
More over availability of income may cause individuals to be mobile and being exposed to commercial sex workers. In another study, HIV and education had a negative relationship in urban areas and a positive link in the rural areas Hargreaves and Glynn cited in Ganyaza-Twalo and Seager Where a positive link was found, the authors suggested that persons, especially men, with greater levels of education may have more disposable income which, in turn, allows them greater access to travel and increased opportunity for contact with commercial sex workers.
The findings pointed out that wealthier people tend to have the resources which lead to greater and more frequent mobility and expose them to wider sexual networks, encouraging multiple and concurrent relationships. Therefore, high HIV prevalence is mainly fuelled by poverty which leads into migration and exercise of commercial sex by women to gain a living. Moreover poverty increases the progression of AIDS because of lake of medical services. One may argue that, poverty creates a platform for people to be infected by HIV and if they are infected poverty further deepens its roots.
This is because of liquidation of productive asserts in trying to cope with disease. He wrote of people's views of the epidemic: Rather, they saw it in the wider context of other crises predating it. During and for a few years after World War II, the study area was struck by famine partly due to drought and partly due to rationing imposed by the British colonial government in Tanganyika. Most households had to dispose of their assets. This was a generalised hunger throughout Tanzania and the situation was made worse by the world oil price shock.
A few years later there was olushengo lwa Amin Amin's warthat is, the war between Uganda and Tanzania. Although the village is about 72 kilometers from the border it not only received some of the displaced people from the border villages but it suffered the economic disruption wrought by the war. Much of the period from has been characterized by poor national economic performance and consequently the decline of the coffee crop in the area.
Africa: HIV/AIDS and Poverty, 10/31/00
The economic downturn has continued with only brief hiatuses in some years. Numerous studies from countries in Africa and India document the sexual networking and the high HIV prevalence along the truck routes. Both of these phenomena, as already emphasized, preceded structural adjustment programs but increased with the emphasis on an export-oriented growth.
In many countries, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, nothing could have been more inappropriate than decreasing access to health services, given the already very high rates of untreated STDs and non-specific bacterial and vaginal infections, a now recognized leading factor in the spread of HIV infection.
Cutbacks in funding for public clinics reportedly also encouraged the reuse of disposable syringes, potentially contributing to HIV transmission. Here we place a sample of the linkages in the context of structural shocks. Decades of changes in economic activity and gender relations have placed women in increasingly difficult situations.
Although poorly documented, the range and depth of women's responsibilities have increased during the era of AIDS.
More active care-giving for sick and dying relatives has been added to the existing work load. Children girls first have been withdrawn from school, both to save on costs and to add to labor within the household. Whether women received remittances from men working away from home, received "allowances", or earned income themselves, AIDS made the availability of cash more problematic.
These costs are dis- investments to the family and survivors. Household food security is often affected in negative ways. In many parts of Africa, women lose all or most of the household assets after the death of a husband. Low incomes, dis-investment, constrained cash flow all place economic pressures on women.
Anecdotal evidence and some studies indicate that these pressures push a number of women into situations where sex is coerced in exchange for small cash or in-kind payments. Along the Thailand-Burma border, many of the sex workers are young women, caught up in the "green harvest" in which their work is a means to repay loans made to their families by money lenders who recruit young women for the sex industry.
Poverty and HIV/AIDS in South Africa: an empirical contribution.
Most of the young women return home HIV-positive. Taken together, these and existing education, employment, legal, and other structural biases facing women, add to the shocks that have disrupted social institutions over the past decades.
Militarism and Armed Conflict Wars and civil violence have contributed to situations of increased susceptibility. Epidemiologic data is usually lacking in many of the areas of prolonged warfare or civil violence. It is worth noting, however, that literally all the countries of Eastern and Southern Africa have been engaged in or have experienced repercussions from wars or major civil violence since the mids. It is in these regions of Africa that the epidemic is most severe.
Warfare presents major opportunity costs for Third World countries. Resources flow to arms and equipment purchases, military salaries, replacement costs, and hundreds of other large and small expenditures.
Arguably, these resources in the mid and late s could have been going for desperately need improved access to health care, especially STD treatment and other forms of HIV prevention. In many countries military expenditures in the s and today divert needed resources from health care including support for home health care as the epidemic means sharply increased needs. Displaced and refugee populations numbering in the hundreds of thousands and more have had their lives disrupted by military actions.
During the genocide in Rwanda, "'virtually every adult woman or girl past puberty who was spared from massacre by the militias had been raped' --along with many younger children. Many of these children have been abandoned. Life in refugee camps often is precarious for women and girls. For example, a high incidence of rape was reported among Somali refugees in Kenya in The Shock of Disillusionment Many of the shocks have been reviewed at aggregate levels.
Less evidence exists on what might be called sub-shocks, the repercussions of larger changes.
For example, agricultural marketing reforms produced a ripple effect of shocks for market-oriented small-scale farmers: Reductions and delays or cutoffs in credit S Delays in supply of hybrid seeds and fertilizers; Disruptions in agricultural extension and veterinary advice; Delays in collection of crops; Crop losses for lack of storage; Delays in payment for crops.
For young people, these shocks added to the real or perceived insecurity and low returns from agriculture. The sense that they could improve their material well-being from rural enterprises was further eroded. At the same time, the long-established patterns of migration to employment centers were failing to provide as much opportunity for some employment as in the past.Poverty in Africa - The face of HIV and AIDS
Schooling became less of an assurance of advancement.